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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
Commission file number 001-37386
https://cdn.kscope.io/3d420bae4f61e8aad3528e321f2af3ec-ftai-20221231_g1.jpg
FTAI INFRASTRUCTURE INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware87-4407005
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1345 Avenue of the Americas, 45th FloorNew YorkNY10105
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) (212) 798-6100
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report) N/A

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading Symbol:Name of exchange on which registered:
Common stock, par value $0.01 per shareFIPThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☑ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
þ
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☑
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
1


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No  ☑
As of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the registrant's common stock was not publicly traded. As of August 1, 2022, the date the registrant's common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $324.3 million.
As of March 2, 2023, the number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock was 99,445,074 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the registrant's 2023 annual meeting, to be filed within 120 days after the close of the registrant's fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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FTAI INFRASTRUCTURE INC.
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
PART I
PART II
3


PART III
PART IV


4




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS SUMMARY
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact but instead are based on our present beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to us. You can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates” or the negative version of those words or other comparable words. Any forward-looking statements contained in this report are based upon our historical performance and on our current plans, estimates and expectations in light of information currently available to us. The inclusion of this forward-looking information should not be regarded as a representation by us, that the future plans, estimates or expectations contemplated by us will be achieved.
Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, financial results, financial condition, business, prospects, growth strategy and liquidity. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. The following is a summary of the principal risk factors that make investing in our securities risky and may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. This summary should be read in conjunction with the more complete discussion of the risk factors we face, which are set forth in Part II, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this report. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to:
our ability to successfully operate as a standalone public company;
changes in economic conditions generally and specifically in our industry sectors, and other risks relating to the global economy, including, but not limited to, the Russia-Ukraine conflict, and any related responses or actions by businesses and governments;
reductions in cash flows received from our assets;
our ability to take advantage of acquisition opportunities at favorable prices;
a lack of liquidity surrounding our assets, which could impede our ability to vary our portfolio in an appropriate manner;
the relative spreads between the yield on the assets we acquire and the cost of financing;
adverse changes in the financing markets we access affecting our ability to finance our acquisitions;
customer defaults on their obligations;
our ability to renew existing contracts and enter into new contracts with existing or potential customers;
the availability and cost of capital for future acquisitions;
concentration of a particular type of asset or in a particular sector;
competition within the rail, energy and intermodal transport sectors;
the competitive market for acquisition opportunities;
risks related to operating through joint ventures, partnerships, consortium arrangements or other collaborations with third parties;
our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses;
obsolescence of our assets or our ability to sell our assets;
exposure to uninsurable losses and force majeure events;
infrastructure operations and maintenance may require substantial capital expenditures;
the legislative/regulatory environment and exposure to increased economic regulation;
exposure to the oil and gas industry’s volatile oil and gas prices;
our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and the fact that maintaining such exemption imposes limits on our operations;
our ability to successfully utilize leverage in connection with our investments;
foreign currency risk and risk management activities;
effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;
exposure to environmental risks, including natural disasters, increasing environmental legislation and the broader impacts of climate change;
changes in interest rates and/or credit spreads, as well as the success of any hedging strategy we may undertake in relation to such changes;
actions taken by national, state, or provincial governments, including nationalization, or the imposition of new taxes, could materially impact the financial performance or value of our assets;
5


our dependence on our Manager and its professionals and actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager;
effects of the merger of Fortress Investment Group LLC with affiliates of SoftBank Group Corp.;
volatility in the market price of our stock;
the inability to pay dividends to our stockholders in the future; and
other risks described in the “Risk Factors” section of this report.
These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this report. The forward-looking statements made in this report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement except as required by law, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from what we may have expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We caution that you should not place undue reliance on any of our forward-looking statements. Furthermore, new risks and uncertainties arise from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us.
6



PART I
Item 1. Business
Our Company
FTAI Infrastructure Inc. (“we”, “us”, “our”, or the “Company”) is in the business of acquiring, developing and operating assets and businesses that represent critical infrastructure for customers in the transportation, energy, and industrial products industries. We were formed on December 13, 2021 as FTAI Infrastructure LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and subsidiary of Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC (“Former Parent”). Former Parent became a subsidiary of FTAI Aviation Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company and the surviving parent company (“FTAI Aviation”), upon completion of the transactions contemplated in that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger”) on November 10, 2022, between Former Parent and FTAI Aviation and certain other parties thereto. Except as otherwise specified, prior to the Merger, “FTAI” refers to Former Parent and, following the Merger, “FTAI” refers to FTAI Aviation, in each case including their consolidated subsidiaries. In connection with the spin-off of the infrastructure business (“FTAI Infrastructure”), as described below, FTAI Infrastructure LLC converted into FTAI Infrastructure Inc., a Delaware corporation, which holds all of the material assets and investments that comprised FTAI's former infrastructure business. Prior to the spin-off, we operated as a subsidiary of FTAI, a Nasdaq-listed company that is externally managed and advised by FIG LLC (the “Manager”), an affiliate of Fortress Investment Group LLC (“Fortress”). Following the spin-off, FTAI Infrastructure Inc. became an independent, publicly-traded company with its common stock listed under the symbol “FIP" on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.
Our operations consist of four primary business lines: (i) Railroad, (ii) Ports and Terminals, (iii) Power and Gas and (iv) Sustainability and Energy Transition. Our Railroad business primarily invests in and operates short line and regional railroads in North America. Our Ports and Terminals business, consisting of our Jefferson Terminal and Repauno segments, develops or acquires industrial properties in strategic locations that store and handle for third parties a variety of energy products including crude oil, refined products and clean fuels. Through an equity method investment, our Power and Gas business develops and operates facilities, such as a 485 megawatt power plant at the Long Ridge terminal in Ohio, that leverage the property’s location and key attributes to generate incremental value. Our Sustainability and Energy Transition business focuses on investments in companies and assets that utilize green technology, produce sustainable fuels and products or enable customers to reduce their carbon footprint. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our Railroad business accounted for 57% of our total revenue and our Ports and Terminals business accounted for 25% of our total revenue. Corporate and other sources accounted for the remaining 18% of our total revenue.
We target sectors that we believe enjoy strong long-term growth potential and proactively seek investment opportunities within those sectors that we believe will generate strong risk-adjusted returns. We take an opportunistic approach—targeting assets that are distressed or undervalued, or where we believe we can add value through active management, without heavy reliance on the use of financial leverage to generate returns. We also seek to develop incremental opportunities to deploy capital through follow-on investments in our existing assets in order to grow our earnings and create value. While leverage on any individual asset may vary, we target overall corporate leverage for our assets on a consolidated basis of no greater than 50% of our total capital.
We expect to continue to invest in such market sectors, and pursue additional investment opportunities in other infrastructure businesses and assets we believe to be attractive and meet our investment objectives. Our team focuses on acquiring a diverse group of long-lived assets or operating businesses that provide mission-critical services or functions to infrastructure networks and typically have high barriers to entry, strong margins, stable cash flows and upside from earnings growth and asset appreciation driven by increased use and inflation. We believe that there are a large number of acquisition opportunities in our markets and that our Manager’s expertise and business and financing relationships, together with our access to capital and generally available capital for infrastructure projects in today’s marketplace, will allow us to take advantage of these opportunities. As of December 31, 2022, we had total consolidated assets of $2.5 billion and total redeemable preferred stock and equity of $789.4 million.
Spin-Off of FTAI Infrastructure
On August 1, 2022, FTAI distributed to the holders of FTAI common shares one share of FTAI Infrastructure Inc. common stock for each FTAI common share held by such shareholder at the close of business on July 21, 2022.
FTAI Infrastructure Inc. was spun out as an entity taxed as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and holds FTAI’s former (i) Transtar business, (ii) Jefferson Terminal business, (iii) Repauno business, (iv) Long Ridge investment, (v) Aleon and Gladieux investment, (vi) KRS business, (vii) Clean Planet USA investment, (viii) FYX business, (ix) CarbonFree business, and (x) Containers business. FTAI Infrastructure Inc. retained all related project-level debt of those entities. In connection with the spin-off, FTAI Infrastructure Inc. entered into subscription agreements to issue $300.0 million of redeemable preferred stock and warrants and sold $500.0 million of 10.500% senior secured notes due 2027 (the “2027 Notes”), the net proceeds of which were remitted to FTAI in connection with the spin-off.
FTAI Infrastructure Inc. is externally managed by the Manager. In connection with the spin-off, FTAI Infrastructure Inc. entered into a management agreement with the Manager (the “Management Agreement”), with substantially the same terms as the previously held management agreement between the Former Parent and the Manager. The Management Agreement has an
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initial term of six years. The Manager is entitled to a management fee, incentive fees (comprised of income incentive fees and capital gains incentive fees) and reimbursement of certain expenses on substantially similar terms as the previously held agreements with the Manager.
Our Strategy
We invest across a number of major sectors including energy, intermodal transport, ports and terminals and rail, and we may pursue acquisitions in other areas as and when opportunities arise in the future. In general, we seek to own a diverse mix of high-quality infrastructure facilities, operations and equipment within our target sectors that generate predictable cash flows in markets that we believe provide the potential for strong long-term growth and attractive returns on deployed capital. We believe that by investing in a diverse mix of assets across sectors, we can select from among the best risk-adjusted investment opportunities, while avoiding overconcentration in any one segment, further adding to the stability of our business.
We take a proactive investment approach by identifying key secular trends as they emerge within our target sectors and then pursuing what we believe are the most compelling opportunities within those sectors. We look for unique investments, including assets that are distressed or undervalued, or where we believe that we can add value through active management. We consider investments across the size spectrum, including smaller opportunities often overlooked by other investors, particularly where we believe we may be able to grow the investment over time. We believe one of our strengths is our ability to create attractive follow-on investment opportunities and deploy incremental capital within our existing portfolio. We have several such opportunities currently identified, including significant potential for future investment at our Jefferson Terminal, Repauno and Long Ridge sites, in addition to our other assets, as discussed below.
Our Manager has significant prior experience in all of our target sectors, as well as a network of industry relationships, that we believe positions us well to make successful acquisitions and to actively manage and improve operations and cash flows of our existing and newly-acquired assets. These relationships include senior executives at lessors and operators, end users of transportation and infrastructure assets, as well as banks, lenders and other asset owners.
We have a robust current pipeline of potential investment opportunities. This current pipeline consists of opportunities for renewable and non-renewable energy, intermodal, rail and port-related investments.
Asset Acquisition Process
Our strategy is to acquire assets that we believe are essential to global infrastructure. We acquire assets that are used by major operators of infrastructure networks. We seek to acquire assets and businesses that we believe operate in sectors with long-term macroeconomic growth opportunities and that have significant cash flow and upside potential from earnings growth and asset appreciation.
We approach markets and opportunities by first developing an asset acquisition strategy with our Manager and then pursuing optimal opportunities within that strategy. In addition to relying on our own experience, we source new opportunities through our Manager’s network of industry relationships in order to find, structure and execute attractive acquisitions. We believe that sourcing assets both globally and through multiple channels will enable us to find the most attractive opportunities. We are selective in the assets we pursue and efficient in the manner in which we pursue them.
Once attractive opportunities are identified, our Manager performs detailed due diligence on each of our potential acquisitions. Due diligence on each of our assets always includes a comprehensive review of the asset itself as well as the industry and market dynamics, competitive positioning, and financial and operational performance. Where appropriate, our Manager conducts physical inspections, a review of the credit quality of each of our counterparties, the regulatory environment, and a review of all material documentation. In some cases, third-party specialists are hired to physically inspect and/or value the target assets.
We and our Manager also spend a significant amount of time on structuring our acquisitions to minimize risks while also optimizing expected returns. We employ what we believe to be reasonable amounts of leverage in connection with our acquisitions. In determining the amount of leverage for each acquisition, we consider a number of characteristics, including, but not limited to, the existing cash flow, the length of the lease or contract term, and the specific counterparty.
Management Agreement
We are externally managed by our Manager, an affiliate of Fortress, which has a dedicated team of experienced professionals focused on the acquisition of infrastructure assets since 2002. On December 27, 2017, SoftBank Group Corp. (“SoftBank”) completed its acquisition of Fortress (the “SoftBank Merger”). In connection with the SoftBank Merger, Fortress operates within SoftBank as an independent business headquartered in New York.
Pursuant to the terms of the management agreement with our Manager, our Manager provides a management team and other professionals who are responsible for implementing our business strategy and performing certain services for us, subject to oversight by our board of directors. Our Management Agreement has an initial six-year term and is automatically renewed for one-year terms thereafter unless terminated either by us or our Manager. For its services, our Manager is entitled to receive a management fee from us, payable monthly, that is based on the average value of our total equity (including redeemable preferred stock, but excluding non-controlling interests) determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) as of the last day of the two most recently completed months multiplied by an annual rate of 1.50%. In addition, we are obligated to reimburse certain expenses incurred by our Manager on our behalf.
Our Portfolio
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The following primarily comprise our Railroad business:
Transtar
Transtar is comprised of five short-line freight railroads and one switching company, including two railroads that connect to U.S. Steel Corporation’s (“USS”) largest production facilities in North America: the Gary Railway Company, Indiana; The Lake Terminal Railroad Company, Ohio; Union Railroad Company LLC, Pennsylvania; Fairfield Southern Company Inc., Alabama; Delray Connecting Railroad Company, Michigan; and the Texas & Northern Railroad Company, Texas.
FTAI and USS also entered into an exclusive strategic rail partnership under which we will provide rail service to USS for an initial term of 15 years with minimum volume commitments for the first five years. Through operational improvements and potential long-term development projects, we intend to enhance performance of under-utilized Transtar assets.
Acquisition of Transtar
On July 28, 2021, FTAI completed the purchase of 100% of the equity interests of Transtar, which was a wholly owned short-line railroad subsidiary of U.S. Steel, for a cash purchase price of $640.0 million, subject to certain customary adjustments set forth in the Transtar Purchase Agreement. As of December 31, 2022, Transtar has approximately 400 employees, of which approximately 300 are subject to collective bargaining agreements.
Railway Services Agreement
On July 28, 2021, in connection with the closing of the Transtar Acquisition, Transtar, certain Transtar subsidiaries (together with Transtar, the “Transtar Parties”), and U.S. Steel entered into a railway services agreement (the “Railway Services Agreement”). Under the Railway Services Agreement, for an initial term of 15 years from and after the closing of the Transtar Acquisition, Transtar will continue to provide U.S. Steel with rail haulage, switching and transportation services at U.S. Steel’s facilities in and around Gary, Indiana, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Fairfield, Alabama, Ecorse, Michigan, Lorain, Ohio and Lone Star, Texas, including but not limited to: railcar maintenance and repair services, locomotive maintenance, inspection and repair services, maintenance-of-way services, car management services, and rail and material handling services. The first five years of the Railway Services Agreement term contain the following minimum annual dollar value requirements: (i) from the closing until the first anniversary, $85.8 million, (ii) from the first anniversary until the second anniversary, $92.3 million, (iii) from the second anniversary until the third anniversary, $94.5 million, (iv) from the third anniversary until the fourth anniversary, $103.5 million and (v) from the fourth anniversary until the fifth anniversary, $106.5 million.
The following primarily comprise our Ports and Terminals business:
Jefferson Terminal
In August 2014, FTAI and certain other Fortress affiliates purchased substantially all of the assets and assumed certain liabilities of Jefferson Terminal, a Texas-based group of companies developing crude oil and refined products logistics assets since 2012.
Jefferson Terminal is located on approximately 250 acres of land at the Port of Beaumont, Texas, a deep-water port near the mouth of the Neches River (the “Port”). Today, Jefferson Terminal leases 185 developed or developable acres from the Port. As part of the lease, Jefferson Terminal was granted the concession to operate as the sole handler of liquid hydrocarbons at the Port. Jefferson Terminal does not own any land at Jefferson Terminal but does own certain equipment and leasehold improvements carried out as part of the Jefferson Terminal build-out.
Jefferson Terminal is developing a large multi-modal crude oil and refined products handling terminal at the Port, and also owns several other assets for the transportation and processing of crude oil and related products. Jefferson Terminal has a unique combination of six rail loop tracks and direct rail service from three Class I railroads, multiple direct pipeline connections to local refineries and interstate pipeline systems, barge docks and deep water ship loading capacity, capabilities to handle multiple types of products including refined products and both free-flowing and heavy grade crude oils, and a prime location close to Port Arthur and Lake Charles, which are home to refineries with over 2.3 million barrels per day of capacity. Jefferson Terminal currently has approximately 6.2 million barrels of heated and unheated storage tanks in operation servicing both crude oil and refined products. As we secure new storage and handling contracts, we expect to expand storage capacity and/or develop new assets. The timing of the ultimate development of Jefferson Terminal will be dependent, in part, on the pace at which contracts are executed as well as the amount of volume subject to such contracts.
Jefferson Terminal’s prime location and excellent optionality make it well suited to provide logistics solutions to regional and global refineries, including blending, storage and delivery of crude oil and refined products. Jefferson Terminal handles, stores, and blends both light and heavy crudes that originate by marine, rail or pipeline from most major North American production markets, including Western Canada, the Uinta Basin, the Permian Basin, and other domestic formations, as well as other international markets, with full heating capabilities for unloading heavier crude prior to storing and blending. Jefferson Terminal also transloads refined products, including automotive gasoline, diesel fuel, and other products, that nearby refineries produce and ship through its terminal by pipeline, rail and marine to other domestic and foreign markets in North and South America.
Heavy crude oils, such as those produced in Utah and Western Canada, are in high demand on the Gulf Coast because most refineries in the area are configured to handle heavier crudes (previously sourced predominately from Mexico and Venezuela) than those in other parts of the United States. Heavy crude is well suited for transport by rail rather than pipeline because of its high viscosity. Jefferson Terminal is one of only a few terminals on the Gulf Coast that has heated unloading system capabilities to handle these heavier grades of crude. As the production of North American heavy crude grows in excess of existing takeaway
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capacity, demand for crude-by-rail to the Gulf Coast is expected to increase. Refined products opportunities for storage and logistics are expected to be positively impacted by demand growth in export markets.
Mexican demand for U.S.-sourced refined products continues to increase; however, Mexico lacks the infrastructure required to efficiently import, store and distribute large volumes of gasoline and diesel. This has spurred the rapid build-out of new Mexican rail terminals, as well as storage capacity on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border. To meet such increased demand, Jefferson Terminal operates a refined products system that receives three grades of products by direct pipeline connection from a large area refiner, as well as inland tank barge via the barge dock, stores the cargo in six tanks with a combined capacity of approximately 0.7 million barrels, and operates a 20 spot rail car loading system with the capacity to load approximately 70,000 barrels per day. This system may be further expanded to meet additional market demand.
Recent expansion projects completed include the construction of 10 new tanks and related infrastructure, consisting of approximately 1.9 million barrels of refined products storage to support international marine exports. Additionally, a second ship dock is currently in development and expected to be in service during 2023.
In addition to the Jefferson Terminal, Jefferson Terminal owns several other energy and infrastructure-related assets, including 299 tank railcars for the purpose of leasing to third parties; pipeline rights-of-way; an approximately 50-acre property with inter-coastal waterway access all of which can be developed as well as an approximately 605-acre industrial property in Nederland, Texas. These assets can be deployed or developed in the future to meet market demands for transportation and hydrocarbon processing, and if successfully deployed or developed, may represent additional opportunities to generate stable, recurring cash flow. As we secure customer contracts, we expect to invest equity capital to fund working capital needs and future construction, which may be required.
Repauno
During 2016, through Delaware River Partners LLC (“DRP”), a consolidated subsidiary, FTAI purchased the assets of Repauno, which consisted primarily of land, a storage cavern, and riparian rights for the acquired land, site improvements and rights. We currently hold an approximately 98% economic interest, and a 100% voting interest in DRP. DRP is solely reliant on us to finance its activities and therefore is a variable interest entity (“VIE”). We concluded that we are the primary beneficiary; accordingly, DRP has been presented on a consolidated basis in the accompanying financial statements.
As one of the newest marine terminals on the Delaware River, Repauno is uniquely positioned as a premier multimodal facility on the Atlantic Seaboard. The deep water terminal is located on 1,600 acres in Gibbstown, New Jersey with underground granite storage cavern infrastructure, a new multipurpose dock and convenient truck access to two major interstate highways.
Shortly after the end of 2020, DRP completed its new state-of-the-art rail-to-ship transloading system. This allows DRP to load Liquified Petroleum Gas (“LPG”) marine vessels from its new wharf, including 16 marine vessels loaded in 2022. As the newest marine terminal on the Delaware River, Repauno is designed to safely and efficiently handle a wide variety of freight, providing critical logistics services to a multitude of industrial segments. In addition, Repauno is expanding its storage and transloading capacity, and pursuing accretive sustainable energy projects such as the development of a recycling facility on-site (see discussion of Clean Planet USA below).
The following primarily comprise our Power and Gas business:
Long Ridge Energy & Power
During 2017, through Ohio River Partners Shareholder LLC (“ORP”), a consolidated subsidiary, FTAI purchased 100% of the interests in the assets of Long Ridge Energy & Power (“Long Ridge”), which consisted primarily of land, buildings, railroad track, docks, water rights, site improvements and other rights. In December 2019, ORP contributed its equity interests in Long Ridge into Long Ridge Terminal LLC and sold a 49.9% interest for $150 million in cash. We no longer have a controlling interest in Long Ridge but still maintain significant influence through our retained interest and, therefore, now account for this investment in accordance with the equity method.
Long Ridge Energy & Power is one of the Appalachian Basin’s leading multimodal energy terminals with a 485 megawatt power plant, nearly 300 acres of flat land, two barge docks on the Ohio River, a unit-train-capable loop track and direct highway access.
In October 2021, Long Ridge completed its construction of its now fully-functional 485 MW combined-cycle power plant at the site and the associated plans to self-supply the natural gas fuel requirements for the plant. Long Ridge continues to evaluate opportunities to deploy its assets for sustainable and traditional energy projects and other value-driving enterprises.
For example, Long Ridge plans to eventually run its power plant on carbon-free hydrogen. In collaboration with New Fortress Energy and GE, Long Ridge has test-blended carbon-free hydrogen as a fuel and intends to continue testing to increase that blend over time by blending hydrogen in the gas stream and transitioning the plant to be capable of burning 100% green hydrogen over the next decade. In April 2022, Long Ridge became the first large scale gas power plant in the U.S. to blend hydrogen as a fuel. This is also the first GE-H class turbine in the world to achieve this milestone. Long Ridge has continued with plans for plant integration for hydrogen blending and to ensure safe and reliable industrial practices. For initial testing of hydrogen blending, Long Ridge has access to nearby industrial byproduct hydrogen. For the production of green hydrogen with electrolysis, Long Ridge has access to water from the Ohio River.
Long Ridge also continues to explore possibilities for on-site development of projects using on-site power generation. In particular, Long Ridge has an agreement with a company to develop a biodegradable plastics plant on site which would use on-
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site power and produce environmentally-friendly plastic products. Long Ridge also continues to explore the possibility for on-site data center development which would utilize Long Ridge’s on-site power capabilities.
The following primarily comprise our Sustainability and Energy Transition business:
Aleon and Gladieux
In September 2021, FTAI acquired 1% of the Class A shares and 50% of the Class B shares of GM-FTAI Holdco LLC for $52.5 million. GM-FTAI Holdco LLC owns a 100% interest in Gladieux and Aleon. Gladieux specializes in recycling spent catalyst produced in the petroleum refining industry. Aleon plans to develop a lithium-ion battery recycling business across the United States. Each planned location will collect, discharge and disassemble lithium-ion batteries to extract various metals in high-purity form for resale into the lithium-ion battery production market. Aleon and Gladieux are governed by separate boards of directors. Due to an internal reorganization of GM-FTAI Holdco LLC in June 2022, we now own a 27.4% indirect interest in each of Gladieux and Aleon.
Clean Planet USA
On November 19, 2021, FTAI and UK green-tech company Clean Planet Energy announced the formation of a joint venture partnership to develop Clean Planet USA ecoPlants in key North American markets. The first Clean Planet USA ecoPlant is under development at the Repauno Port & Rail Terminal in Gibbstown, New Jersey, where the plant is planned to initially process 20,000 tons of waste plastics each year. In addition, the newly formed Clean Planet USA business development team is advancing multiple additional projects with agreements in place for plastic-waste supply in Alabama, Texas, Florida, the Dominican Republic, and other North American markets.
Clean Planet USA ecoPlants are green recycling facilities that convert traditionally non-recyclable waste plastics into ultra-clean fuels and oils, and circular naphtha to support the manufacture of new plastics. An ecoPlant can accept and process plastics from all classifications, including those which are almost always rejected by traditional recycling centers and sent to landfill or incineration.
CarbonFree
In December 2021, FTAI purchased $10 million in convertible notes of CarbonFree. CarbonFree has developed patented technologies to capture carbon dioxide from industrial emissions sources and convert it to usable and storable products.
Long Ridge-Newlight AirCarbon Facility
On June 24, 2022, Long Ridge and certain of its subsidiaries entered into agreements with a wholly-owned, direct subsidiary of Newlight Technologies, Inc. (“Newlight”), whereby Long Ridge will lease land and sell power and gas. Newlight has developed a technology to produce AirCarbon, a naturally-occurring, carbon-negative molecule called PHB that performs like plastic, but biologically degrades in natural environments. The agreements are subject to certain conditions, including that the board of directors of Newlight will make the final investment decision regarding whether to proceed with the development of the project.
Our other opportunistic investments include:
FYX
In July 2020, FTAI invested $1.3 million for a 14% interest in an operating company that provides roadside assistance services for the intermodal and over-the-road trucking industries. FYX has developed a mobile and web-based application that connects fleet managers, owner-operators, and drivers with repair vendors to efficiently and reliably quote, dispatch, monitor, and bill comprehensive roadside and fleet repair services. In May 2022, we purchased an additional 51% interest in FYX from an unrelated third party for cash consideration of $4.6 million, which resulted in our ownership of a majority stake in the entity and consolidation of the entity, and subsequently purchased an additional approximate 1% interest in FYX for cash consideration of $0.1 million. FYX is currently recorded as part of the Corporate and Other segment.
Asset Management
Our Manager actively manages and monitors our portfolios of assets on an ongoing basis, and in some cases engages third parties to assist with the management of those assets. Our Manager frequently reviews the status of all of our assets. In the case of operating infrastructure, our Manager plays a central role in developing and executing operational, finance and business development strategies. On a periodic basis, our Manager discusses the status of our acquired assets with our board of directors.
In some situations, we may acquire assets through a joint venture entity or own a minority position in an investment entity. In such circumstances, we will seek to protect our interests through appropriate levels of board representation, minority protections and other structural enhancements.
While we expect to hold our assets for extended periods of time, we and our Manager continually review our assets to assess whether we should sell or otherwise monetize them. Aspects that will factor into this process include relevant market conditions, the asset’s age, relative concentration or remaining expected useful life.
Customers
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Our customers consist of global industrial and energy companies, including corporations that refine crude oil and trade petroleum products, manufacturers and local electricity markets and traders. We maintain ongoing relationships and discussions with our customers and seek to have consistent dialogue. In addition to helping us monitor the needs and quality of our customers, we believe these relationships help source additional opportunities and gain insight into attractive opportunities in the infrastructure sectors. A substantial portion of our revenue has historically been derived from a small number of customers. As of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, our largest customer accounted for 51% of our revenue and 31% of total accounts receivable, net. We derive a significant percentage of our revenue within specific sectors from a limited number of customers. However, we do not think that we are dependent upon any particular customer without minimum volume commitments, or that the loss of one or more of them would have a material adverse effect on our business or the relevant segment, because of our ability to replace the customers at similar contractual terms following the loss of any such customer. See “Risk Factors—Contractual defaults may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by decreasing revenues and increasing storage, positioning, collection, recovery and lost equipment expenses.”
Competition
The business of acquiring, managing and marketing infrastructure assets is highly competitive. Market competition for acquisition opportunities includes traditional infrastructure companies, commercial and investment banks, as well as a growing number of non-traditional participants, such as hedge funds, private equity funds, and other private investors.
Additionally, the markets for our products and services are competitive, and we face competition from a number of sources. These competitors include companies in the midstream energy business, terminal operators and those involved in the transportation of bulk goods.
We compete with other market participants on the basis of industry knowledge, availability of capital and deal structuring experience and flexibility, among other things. We believe our Manager’s experience in the infrastructure industry and our access to capital, in addition to our focus on diverse asset classes and customers, provides a competitive advantage versus competitors that maintain a single sector focus.
Governmental Regulations
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants to air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites and noise and emission levels. Under some environmental laws in the United States and certain other countries, strict liability may be imposed on the owners or operators of assets, which could render us liable for environmental and natural resource damages without regard to negligence or fault on our part. In addition, changes to environmental standards or regulations in the industries in which we operate could limit the economic life of the assets we acquire or reduce their value, and also require us to make significant additional investments in order to maintain compliance.
Sustainability
Our ongoing sustainable solutions and investments in our business include the following:
Waste plastic to renewable fuel. In November 2021, FTAI announced a joint venture with Clean Planet Energy, a UK-based green tech company, that aims to develop Clean Planet Energy USA ecoPlants in key North American markets. The ecoPlants will be designed to convert non-recyclable waste plastics (which are typically destined for landfill) into ultra-clean fuels and oils to support the manufacture of new plastics. The first facility is under development at Repauno in Gibbstown, New Jersey, and is expected to initially process 20,000 tons of waste plastics each year.
Lithium-ion battery recycling. In September 2021, FTAI acquired a significant interest in Aleon and Gladieux. Aleon plans to develop a lithium-ion battery recycling business across the United States. Each planned location is anticipated to collect, discharge and disassemble lithium-ion batteries to extract various metals in high-purity form for resale into the lithium-ion battery production market. Gladieux specializes in recycling spent catalyst produced in the petroleum refining industry. Aleon’s initial battery recycling plant is planned to be build-out at the Freeport site owned by Gladieux, leveraging their existing assets and infrastructure. At full ramp, the plant is expected to process approximately 110,000 tons of spent lithium-ion batteries each year.
Hydrogen-fueled power plant. In October 2020, Long Ridge, located in Hannibal, Ohio, announced its plan to transition its 485 MW combined-cycle power plant to run on carbon-free hydrogen, in collaboration with New Fortress Energy, GE, Kiewit Power Constructors Co., Black & Veatch and NAES Corporation. In April 2022, Long Ridge became the first large scale gas power plant in the U.S. to blend hydrogen as a fuel. This is also the first GE-H class turbine in the world to achieve this milestone. The plant is anticipated to be transitioned to be capable of burning 100% green hydrogen over the next decade.
Carbon capture. In December 2021, FTAI invested in CarbonFree, whose operations are intended to capture carbon from industrial emitters and convert it to beneficial products that also sequester the carbon permanently.
Human Capital Management
Our Manager provides a management team and other professionals who are responsible for implementing our business strategy and performing certain services for us, subject to oversight by our board of directors. As of December 31, 2022, we have approximately 690 employees at our subsidiaries across our business segments, approximately 340 of whom are party to
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collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good and we focus heavily on employee engagement. We have invested substantial time and resources into building our team, and our human capital management objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees. To facilitate attraction and retention, we strive to create a diverse, inclusive, and safe workplace, with opportunities for our employees to grow and develop in their careers, supported by strong compensation and benefits programs.
Conflicts of Interest
Although we have established certain policies and procedures designed to mitigate conflicts of interest, there can be no assurance that these policies and procedures will be effective in doing so. It is possible that actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest could give rise to investor dissatisfaction, litigation or regulatory enforcement actions. Below is a summary of certain factors that could result in conflicts of interest.
One or more of our officers and directors have responsibilities and commitments to entities other than us, including, but not limited to, FTAI. In addition, we do not have a policy that expressly prohibits our directors, officers, security holders or affiliates from engaging for their own account in business activities of the types conducted by us. Moreover, our certificate of incorporation provides that if any of FTAI, Fortress or SoftBank and their respective affiliates, including the Manager (the “Fortress Parties”), or any of their officers, directors or employees acquire knowledge of a potential transaction that could be a corporate opportunity for us, they have no duty, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to offer such corporate opportunity to us. In the event that any of our directors and officers who is also a director, officer or employee of any of the Fortress Parties acquires knowledge of a corporate opportunity or is offered a corporate opportunity, provided that this knowledge was not acquired solely in such person’s capacity as a director or officer of us and such person acts in good faith, then such person is deemed to have fully satisfied such person’s fiduciary duties owed to us and is not liable to us, to the fullest extent permitted by law, if any of the Fortress Parties or their respective affiliates, pursues or acquires the corporate opportunity or if such person does not present the corporate opportunity to us. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Manager—There are conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager.”
Our key agreements, including our Management Agreement, were negotiated among related parties, and their respective terms, including fees and other amounts payable, may not be as favorable to us as terms negotiated on an arm’s-length basis with unaffiliated parties.
The structure of the Manager’s compensation arrangement may have unintended consequences for us. We have agreed to pay our Manager a management fee that is not tied to our performance and incentive compensation that is based entirely on our performance. The management fee may not sufficiently incentivize our Manager to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for us, while the performance-based incentive compensation component may cause our Manager to place undue emphasis on the maximization of earnings, including through the use of leverage, at the expense of other objectives, such as preservation of capital, to achieve higher incentive distributions. Since investments with higher yield potential are generally riskier or more speculative than investments with lower yield potential, this could result in increased risk to the value of our portfolio of assets and your investment in us.
We may compete with entities affiliated with or managed by our Manager or Fortress for certain assets that we may seek to acquire. From time to time, entities affiliated with or managed by our Manager or Fortress may focus on investments in assets with a similar profile as our target assets. These affiliates may have meaningful purchasing capacity, which may change over time depending upon a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, available equity capital and debt financing, market conditions and cash on hand. Fortress has funds invested in transportation-related infrastructure with approximately $3.8 billion in investments in aggregate as of December 31, 2022 and $3.5 billion as of December 31, 2021. Fortress funds generally have a fee structure similar to the structure of the fees in our Management Agreement, but the fees actually paid vary depending on the size, terms and performance of each fund.
Our Manager may determine, in its discretion, to make a particular investment through an investment vehicle other than us. Investment allocation decisions will reflect a variety of factors, such as a particular vehicle’s availability of capital (including financing), investment objectives and concentration limits, legal, regulatory, tax and other similar considerations, the source of the investment opportunity and other factors that the Manager, in its discretion, deems appropriate. Our Manager does not have an obligation to offer us the opportunity to participate in any particular investment, even if it meets our investment objectives.
Where Readers Can Find Additional Information
FTAI Infrastructure Inc. is a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105. FTAI Infrastructure Inc. files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public from the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov.
Our internet site is http://www.fipinc.com. We will make available free of charge through our internet site our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and Forms 3, 4 and 5 filed on behalf of directors and executive officers and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Also posted on our website in the ‘‘Investor Relations - Corporate Governance’’ section are charters for our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating Committee, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Ethics for our officers, and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics governing our directors, officers and employees. Information on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this report.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following risks and other information in this Form 10-K in evaluating us and our common stock. Any of the following risks, as well as additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. The risk factors generally have been separated into the following groups: risks related to our business, risks related to our capital structure, risks related to our Manager, risks related to the spin-off and risks related to our common stock. However, these categories do overlap and should not be considered exclusive.
Risks Related to Our Business
We have no operating history as an independent company and may not be able to successfully operate our business strategy, generate sufficient revenue to make or sustain distributions to our stockholders or meet our contractual commitments.
We have no experience operating as an independent company and cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully operate our business or implement our operating policies and strategies as described in this report. The timing, terms, price and form of consideration that we pay in future transactions may vary meaningfully from prior transactions.
As a newly independent public company, there can be no assurance that we will be able to generate sufficient returns to pay our operating expenses and make satisfactory distributions to our stockholders, or any distributions at all. Our results of operations and our ability to make or sustain distributions to our stockholders depend on several factors, including the availability of opportunities to acquire attractive assets, the level and volatility of interest rates, the availability of adequate short- and long-term financing, the financial markets and economic conditions.
The historical financial information included in this report may not be indicative of the results we would have achieved as a separate stand-alone company and are not a reliable indicator of our future performance or results.
We did not operate as a separate, stand-alone company for the entirety of the historical periods presented in the financial information included in this report. During such periods, the financial information included in this report has been derived from FTAI’s historical financial statements. Therefore, the financial information in this report does not necessarily reflect what our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows would have been had we been a separate, stand-alone public company prior to our spin-off from FTAI. This is primarily a result of the following factors:
the financial results in this report do not reflect all of the expenses we will incur as a public company;
the working capital requirements and capital for general corporate purposes for our assets were satisfied prior to the spin-off as part of FTAI’s corporate-wide cash management policies. FTAI is not required, and does not intend, to provide us with funds to finance our working capital or other cash requirements, so we may need to obtain additional financing from banks, through public offerings or private placements of debt or equity securities, strategic relationships or other arrangements; and
our cost structure, management, financing and business operations will be significantly different as a result of operating as an independent public company. These changes result in increased costs, including, but not limited to, fees paid to our Manager, legal, accounting, compliance and other costs associated with being a public company with equity securities traded on Nasdaq.
Uncertainty relating to macroeconomic conditions may reduce the demand for our assets, limit our ability to obtain additional capital to finance new investments or refinance existing debt, or have other unforeseen negative effects.
Uncertainty and negative trends in general economic conditions in the United States and abroad, including significant tightening of credit markets and commodity price volatility, historically have created difficult operating environments for owners and operators in the infrastructure industry. Many factors, including factors that are beyond our control, may impact our operating results or financial condition. For some years, the world has experienced weakened economic conditions and volatility following adverse changes in global capital markets. Volatility in oil and gas markets can put significant upward or downward pressure on prices for these commodities, and may affect demand for assets used in production, refining and transportation of oil and gas. In the past, a significant decline in oil prices has led to lower production and transportation budgets worldwide. These conditions have resulted in significant contraction, deleveraging and reduced liquidity in the credit markets. A number of governments have implemented, or are considering implementing, a broad variety of governmental actions or new regulations for the financial markets. In addition, limitations on the availability of capital, higher costs of capital for financing expenditures or the desire to preserve liquidity, may cause our current or prospective customers to make reductions in future capital budgets and spending.
The industries in which we operate have experienced periods of oversupply during which asset values have declined, particularly during the most recent economic downturn, and any future oversupply could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
The oversupply of a specific asset is likely to depress the value of our assets and result in decreased utilization of our assets, and the industries in which we operate have experienced periods of oversupply during which asset values have declined, particularly during the most recent economic downturn. Factors that could lead to such oversupply include, without limitation:
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general demand for the type of assets that we purchase;
general macroeconomic conditions, including market prices for commodities that our assets may serve;
geopolitical events, including war, prolonged armed conflict and acts of terrorism;
outbreaks of communicable diseases and natural disasters;
governmental regulation;
interest rates;
the availability of credit;
restructurings and bankruptcies of companies in the industries in which we operate, including our customers;
manufacturer production levels and technological innovation;
manufacturers merging or exiting the industry or ceasing to produce certain asset types;
retirement and obsolescence of the assets that we own;
increases in supply levels of assets in the market due to the sale or merging of our customers; and
reintroduction of previously unused or dormant assets into the industries in which we operate.
These and other related factors are generally outside of our control and could lead to persistence of, or increase in, the oversupply of the types of assets that we acquire or decreased utilization of our assets, either of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
There can be no assurance that any target returns will be achieved.
Our target returns for assets are targets only and are not forecasts of future profits. We develop target returns based on our Manager’s assessment of appropriate expectations for returns on assets and the ability of our Manager to enhance the return generated by those assets through active management. There can be no assurance that these assessments and expectations will be achieved and failure to achieve any or all of them may materially adversely impact our ability to achieve any target return with respect to any or all of our assets.
In addition, our target returns are based on estimates and assumptions regarding a number of other factors, including, without limitation, holding periods, the absence of material adverse events affecting specific investments (which could include, without limitation, natural disasters, terrorism, social unrest or civil disturbances), general and local economic and market conditions, changes in law, taxation, regulation or governmental policies and changes in the political approach to infrastructure investment, either generally or in specific countries in which we may invest or seek to invest. Many of these factors, as well as the other risks described elsewhere in this report, are beyond our control and all could adversely affect our ability to achieve a target return with respect to an asset. Further, target returns are targets for the return generated by specific assets and not by us. Numerous factors could prevent us from achieving similar returns, notwithstanding the performance of individual assets, including, without limitation, taxation and fees payable by us or our operating subsidiaries, including fees and incentive allocation payable to our Manager.
There can be no assurance that the returns generated by any of our assets will meet our target returns, or any other level of return, or that we will achieve or successfully implement our asset acquisition objectives, and failure to achieve the target return in respect of any of our assets could, among other things, have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, even if the returns generated by individual assets meet target returns, there can be no assurance that the returns generated by other existing or future assets would do so, and the historical performance of the assets in our existing portfolio should not be considered as indicative of future results with respect to any assets.
Contractual defaults may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by decreasing revenues and increasing storage, positioning, collection, recovery and lost equipment expenses.
The success of our business depends in large part on the success of the operators in the sectors in which we participate. Cash flows from our assets are substantially impacted by our ability to collect compensation and other amounts to be paid in respect of such assets from the customers with whom we enter into contractual arrangements. Inherent in the nature of the arrangements for the use of such assets is the risk that we may not receive, or may experience delay in realizing, such amounts to be paid. While we target the entry into contracts with credit-worthy counterparties, no assurance can be given that such counterparties will perform their obligations during the term of the contractual arrangement. In addition, when counterparties default, we may fail to recover all of our assets, and the assets we do recover may be returned in damaged condition or to locations where we will not be able to efficiently use or sell them.
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If we acquire a high concentration of a particular type of asset, or concentrate our investments in a particular sector, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected by changes in market demand or problems specific to that asset or sector.
If we acquire a high concentration of a particular asset, or concentrate our investments in a particular sector, our business and financial results could be adversely affected by sector-specific or asset-specific factors. Furthermore, as a result of the spin-off transaction, our assets are focused on infrastructure and we do not have any interest in FTAI’s aviation assets, which limits the diversity of our portfolio. Any decrease in the value and rates of our assets may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may not generate a sufficient amount of cash or generate sufficient free cash flow to fund our operations or repay our indebtedness.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness as required depends on our ability to generate cash flow in the future. This ability, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. If we do not generate sufficient free cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, including interest payments and the payment of principal at maturity, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our debt, selling assets, reducing or delaying capital investments or seeking to raise additional capital. We cannot provide assurance that any refinancing would be possible, that any assets could be sold, or, if sold, of the timeliness and amount of proceeds realized from those sales, that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms, if at all, or that additional financing would be permitted under the terms of our various debt instruments then in effect. Furthermore, our ability to refinance would depend upon the condition of the finance and credit markets. Our inability to generate sufficient free cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or on a timely basis, would materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in highly competitive markets.
The business of acquiring infrastructure assets is highly competitive. Market competition for opportunities includes traditional infrastructure companies, commercial and investment banks, as well as a growing number of non-traditional participants, such as hedge funds, private equity funds and other private investors, including Fortress-related entities. Some of these competitors may have access to greater amounts of capital and/or to capital that may be committed for longer periods of time or may have different return thresholds than us, and thus these competitors may have certain advantages not shared by us. In addition, competitors may have incurred, or may in the future incur, leverage to finance their debt investments at levels or on terms more favorable than those available to us. Strong competition for investment opportunities could result in fewer such opportunities for us, as certain of these competitors have established and are establishing investment vehicles that target the same types of assets that we intend to purchase.
In addition, some of our competitors may have longer operating histories, greater financial resources and lower costs of capital than us, and consequently, may be able to compete more effectively in one or more of our target markets. We likely will not always be able to compete successfully with our competitors and competitive pressures or other factors may also result in significant price competition, particularly during industry downturns, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The values of our assets may fluctuate due to various factors.
The fair market values of our assets may decrease or increase depending on a number of factors, including general economic and market conditions affecting our target markets, type and age of assets, supply and demand for assets, competition, new governmental or other regulations and technological advances, all of which could impact our profitability and our ability to develop, operate, or sell such assets. In addition, our assets depreciate as they age and may generate lower revenues and cash flows. We must be able to replace such older, depreciated assets with newer assets, or our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and cash flows will decline. In addition, if we dispose of an asset for a price that is less than the depreciated book value of the asset on our balance sheet or if we determine that an asset’s value has been impaired, we will recognize a related charge in our Consolidated and Combined Consolidated Statements of Operations and such charge could be material.
We may acquire operating businesses, including businesses whose operations are not fully matured and stabilized. These businesses may be subject to significant operating and development risks, including increased competition, cost overruns and delays, and difficulties in obtaining approvals or financing. These factors could materially affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
We received in the spin-off, and may in the future acquire, operating businesses, including businesses whose operations are not fully matured and stabilized (including, but not limited to, our businesses within the Railroad, Jefferson Terminal, Repauno, Power and Gas, and Sustainability and Energy Transition segments). While our Manager has deep experience in the construction and operation of these companies, we are nevertheless subject to significant risks and contingencies of an operating business, and these risks are greater where the operations of such businesses are not fully matured and stabilized. Key factors that may affect our operating businesses include, but are not limited to:
competition from market participants;
general economic and/or industry trends, including pricing for the products or services offered by our operating businesses;
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the issuance and/or continued availability of necessary permits, licenses, approvals and agreements from governmental agencies and third parties as are required to construct and operate such businesses;
changes or deficiencies in the design or construction of development projects;
unforeseen engineering, environmental or geological problems;
potential increases in construction and operating costs due to changes in the cost and availability of fuel, power, materials and supplies;
the availability and cost of skilled labor and equipment;
our ability to enter into additional satisfactory agreements with contractors and to maintain good relationships with these contractors in order to construct development projects within our expected cost parameters and time frame, and the ability of those contractors to perform their obligations under the contracts and to maintain their creditworthiness;
potential liability for injury or casualty losses which are not covered by insurance;
potential opposition from non-governmental organizations, environmental groups, local or other groups which may delay or prevent development activities;
local and economic conditions;
recent geopolitical events;
changes in legal requirements; and
force majeure events, including catastrophes and adverse weather conditions.
Any of these factors could materially affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our use of joint ventures or partnerships, and our Manager’s outsourcing of certain functions, may present unforeseen obstacles or costs.
We received in the spin-off, and may in the future acquire, interests in certain assets in cooperation with third-party partners or co-investors through jointly owned acquisition vehicles, joint ventures or other structures. In these co-investment situations, our ability to control the management of such assets depends upon the nature and terms of the joint arrangements with such partners and our relative ownership stake in the asset, each of which will be determined by negotiation at the time of the investment and the determination of which is subject to the discretion of our Manager. Depending on our Manager’s perception of the relative risks and rewards of a particular asset, our Manager may elect to acquire interests in structures that afford relatively little or no operational and/or management control to us. Such arrangements present risks not present with wholly owned assets, such as the possibility that a co-investor becomes bankrupt, develops business interests or goals that conflict with our interests and goals in respect of the assets, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, our Manager expects to utilize third-party contractors to perform services and functions related to the operation of our assets. These functions may include billing, collections, recovery and asset monitoring. Because we and our Manager do not directly control these third parties, there can be no assurance that the services they provide will be delivered at a level commensurate with our expectations, or at all. The failure of any such third-party contractors to perform in accordance with our expectations could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to the risks and costs of obsolescence of our assets.
Technological and other improvements expose us to the risk that certain of our assets may become technologically or commercially obsolete. If we are not able to acquire new technology or are unable to implement new technology, we may suffer a competitive disadvantage. For example, as the freight transportation markets we serve continue to evolve and become more efficient, the use of certain locomotives or railcars may decline in favor of other more economic modes of transportation. If the technology we use in our lines of business is superseded, or the cost of replacing our locomotives or railcars is expensive and requires additional capital, we could experience significant cost increases and reduced availability of the assets and equipment that are necessary for our operations. Any of these risks may adversely affect our ability to sell our assets on favorable terms, if at all, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
The North American rail sector is a highly regulated industry and increased costs of compliance with, or liability for violation of, existing or future laws, regulations and other requirements could significantly increase our operational costs of doing business, thereby adversely affecting our profitability.
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The rail sector is subject to extensive laws, regulations and other requirements, including, but not limited to, those relating to the environment, safety, rates and charges, service obligations, employment, labor, immigration, minimum wages and overtime pay, health care and benefits, working conditions, public accessibility and other requirements. These laws and regulations are enforced by U.S. federal agencies including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “U.S. EPA”), the U.S. Department of Transportation (the “DOT”), the Occupational Safety and Health Act (the “OSHA”), the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration (the “FRA”), and the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (the “STB”), as well as numerous other state, provincial, local and federal agencies. Ongoing compliance with, or a violation of, these laws, regulations and other requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We believe that our rail operations are in substantial compliance with applicable laws and regulations. However, these laws and regulations, and the interpretation or enforcement thereof, are subject to frequent change and varying interpretation by regulatory authorities, and we are unable to predict the ongoing cost to us of complying with these laws and regulations or the future impact of these laws and regulations on our operations. In addition, from time to time we are subject to inspections and investigations by various regulators. Violation of environmental or other laws, regulations and permits can result in the imposition of significant administrative, civil and criminal penalties, injunctions and construction bans or delays.
Legislation passed by the U.S. Congress or Canadian Parliament or new regulations issued by federal agencies can significantly affect the revenues, costs and profitability of our business. For instance, more recently proposed bills such as the “Rail Shipper Fairness Act of 2017,” or competitive access proposals under consideration by the STB, if adopted, could increase government involvement in railroad pricing, service and operations and significantly change the federal regulatory framework of the railroad industry. Several of the changes under consideration could have a significant negative impact on the Company’s ability to determine prices for rail services, meet service standards and could force a reduction in capital spending. Statutes imposing price constraints or affecting rail-to-rail competition could adversely affect the Company’s profitability.
Under various U.S. federal, state, provincial and local environmental requirements, as the owner or operator of terminals or other facilities, we may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of contamination at or from our existing locations, whether we knew of, or were responsible for, the presence of such contamination. The failure to timely report and properly remediate contamination may subject us to liability to third parties and may adversely affect our ability to sell or rent our property or to borrow money using our property as collateral. Additionally, we may be liable for the costs of remediating third-party sites where hazardous substances from our operations have been transported for treatment or disposal, regardless of whether we own or operate that site. In the future, we may incur substantial expenditures for investigation or remediation of contamination that has not yet been discovered at our current or former locations or locations that we may acquire.
A discharge of hydrocarbons or hazardous substances into the environment associated with operating our rail assets could subject us to substantial expense, including the cost to recover the materials spilled, restore the affected natural resources, pay fines and penalties, and natural resource damages and claims made by employees, neighboring landowners, government authorities and other third parties, including for personal injury and property damage. We may experience future catastrophic sudden or gradual releases into the environment from our facilities or discover historical releases that were previously unidentified or not assessed. Although our inspection and testing programs are designed to prevent, detect and address any such releases promptly, the liabilities incurred due to any future releases into the environment from our assets, have the potential to substantially affect our business. Such events could also subject us to media and public scrutiny that could have a negative effect on our operations and also on the value of our common stock.
Our business could be adversely affected if service on the railroads is interrupted or if more stringent regulations are adopted regarding railcar design or the transportation of crude oil by rail.
As a result of hydraulic fracturing and other improvements in extraction technologies, there has been a substantial increase in the volume of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons produced and transported in North America, and a geographic shift in that production versus historical production. The increase in volume and shift in geography has resulted in increased pipeline congestion and a corresponding growth in crude oil being transported by rail from Canada and across the U.S. High-profile accidents involving crude-oil-carrying trains in Quebec, North Dakota and Virginia, and more recently in Saskatchewan, West Virginia and Illinois, have raised concerns about derailments and the environmental and safety risks associated with crude oil transport by rail and the associated risks arising from railcar design. In Canada, the transport of hazardous products is receiving greater scrutiny which could impact our customers and our business.
In May 2015, the DOT issued new production standards and operational controls for rail tank cars used in “High-Hazard Flammable Trains” (i.e., trains carrying commodities such as ethanol, crude oil and other flammable liquids). Similar standards have been adopted in Canada. The new standard applies for all cars manufactured after October 1, 2015, and existing tank cars must be retrofitted within the next three to eight years. The applicable operational controls include reduced speed restrictions, and maximum lengths on trains carrying these materials. Retrofitting our tank cars will be required under these new standards to the extent we elect to move certain flammable liquids in the future. While we may be able to pass some of these costs on to our customers, there may be costs that we cannot pass on to them. We continue to monitor the railcar regulatory landscape and remain in close contact with railcar suppliers and other industry stakeholders to stay informed of railcar regulation rulemaking developments. It is unclear how these regulations will impact the crude-by-rail industry, and any such impact would depend on a number of factors that are outside of our control. If, for example, overall volume of crude-by-rail decreases, or if we do not have access to a sufficient number of compliant cars to transport required volumes under our existing contracts, our operations may be negatively affected. This may lead to a decrease in revenues and other consequences.
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The adoption of additional federal, state, provincial or local laws or regulations, including any voluntary measures by the rail industry regarding railcar design or crude oil and liquid hydrocarbon rail transport activities, or efforts by local communities to restrict or limit rail traffic involving crude oil, could affect our business by increasing compliance costs and decreasing demand for our services, which could adversely affect our financial position and cash flows. Moreover, any disruptions in the operations of railroads, including those due to shortages of railcars, weather-related problems, flooding, drought, accidents, mechanical difficulties, strikes, lockouts or bottlenecks, could adversely impact our customers’ ability to move their product and, as a result, could affect our business.
We could be negatively impacted by environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) and sustainability-related matters.
Governments, investors, customers, employees and other stakeholders are increasingly focusing on corporate ESG practices and disclosures, and expectations in this area are rapidly evolving. We have announced, and may in the future announce, sustainability-focused investments, partnerships and other initiatives and goals. These initiatives, aspirations, targets or objectives reflect our current plans and aspirations and are not guarantees that we will be able to achieve them. Our efforts to accomplish and accurately report on these initiatives and goals present numerous operational, regulatory, reputational, financial, legal, and other risks, any of which could have a material negative impact, including on our reputation and stock price.
In addition, the standards for tracking and reporting on ESG matters are relatively new, have not been harmonized and continue to evolve. Our selection of disclosure frameworks that seek to align with various voluntary reporting standards may change from time to time and may result in a lack of comparative data from period to period. Moreover, our processes and controls may not always align with evolving voluntary standards for identifying, measuring, and reporting ESG metrics, our interpretation of reporting standards may differ from those of others, and such standards may change over time, any of which could result in significant revisions to our goals or reported progress in achieving such goals. In this regard, the criteria by which our ESG practices and disclosures are assessed may change due to the quickly evolving landscape, which could result in greater expectations of us and cause us to undertake costly initiatives to satisfy such new criteria. The increasing attention to corporate ESG initiatives could also result in increased investigations and litigation or threats thereof. If we are unable to satisfy such new criteria, investors may conclude that our ESG and sustainability practices are inadequate. If we fail or are perceived to have failed to achieve previously announced initiatives or goals or to accurately disclose our progress on such initiatives or goals, our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We transport hazardous materials.
We transport certain hazardous materials and other materials, including crude oil, ethanol, and toxic inhalation hazard (“TIH”) materials, such as chlorine, that pose certain risks in the event of a release or combustion. Additionally, U.S. laws impose common carrier obligations on railroads that require us to transport certain hazardous materials regardless of risk or potential exposure to loss. In addition, insurance premiums charged for, or the self-insured retention associated with, some or all of the coverage currently maintained by us could increase dramatically or certain coverage may not be available to us in the future if there is a catastrophic event related to rail transportation of these materials. A rail accident or other incident or accident on our network, at our facilities, or at the facilities of our customers involving the release or combustion of hazardous materials could involve significant costs and claims for personal injury, property damage, and environmental penalties and remediation in excess of our insurance coverage for these risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We may be affected by fluctuating prices for fuel and energy.
Volatility in energy prices could have a significant effect on a variety of items including, but not limited to: the economy; demand for transportation services; business related to the energy sector, including the production and processing of crude oil, natural gas, and coal; fuel prices; and, fuel surcharges. Particularly in our rail business, fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our expenses. Diesel fuel prices and availability can be subject to dramatic fluctuations, and significant price increases could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. If a severe fuel supply shortage arose from production curtailments, disruption of oil imports or domestic oil production, disruption of domestic refinery production, damage to refinery or pipeline infrastructure, political unrest, war, terrorist attack or otherwise, diesel fuel may not be readily available and may be subject to rationing regulations. Currently, we receive fuel surcharges and other rate adjustments to offset fuel prices, although there may be a significant delay in our recovery of fuel costs based on the terms of the fuel surcharge program. If Class I railroads change their policies regarding fuel surcharges, the compensation we receive for increases in fuel costs may decrease, which could have a negative effect on our profitability; in fact, we cannot be certain that we will always be able to mitigate rising or elevated fuel costs through fuel surcharges at all, as future market conditions or legislative or regulatory activities could adversely affect our ability to apply fuel surcharges or adequately recover increased fuel costs through fuel surcharges.
International, political, and economic factors, events and conditions, including recent geopolitical events, may affect the volatility of fuel prices and supplies. Weather can also affect fuel supplies and limit domestic refining capacity. A severe shortage of, or disruption to, domestic fuel supplies could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In addition, lower fuel prices could have a negative impact on commodities we process and transport, such as crude oil and petroleum products, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Because we depend on Class I railroads for a significant portion of our operations in North America, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be adversely affected if our relationships with these carriers deteriorate.
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The railroad industry in the United States and Canada is dominated by seven Class I carriers that have substantial market control and negotiating leverage. In addition, Class I carriers also traditionally have been significant sources of business for us, and may be future sources of potential acquisition candidates as they divest branch lines. A decision by any of these Class I carriers to cease or re-route certain freight movements or to alter existing business relationships, including operational or relationship changes, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. The overall impact of any such decision would depend on which Class I carrier is involved, the routes and freight movements affected, as well as the nature of any changes.
Transtar faces competition from other railroads and other transportation providers.
Transtar faces competition from other railroads, motor carriers, ships, barges, and pipelines. We operate in some corridors served by other railroads and motor carriers. In addition to price competition, we face competition with respect to transit times, quality, and reliability of service from motor carriers and other railroads. Motor carriers in particular can have an advantage over railroads with respect to transit times and timeliness of service. However, railroads are much more fuel-efficient than trucks, which reduces the impact of transporting goods on the environment and public infrastructure. Additionally, we must build or acquire and maintain our rail system, while trucks, barges, and maritime operators are able to use public rights-of-way maintained by public entities. Any of the following could also affect the competitiveness of our rail services, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity: (i) improvements or expenditures materially increasing the quality or reducing the costs of these alternative modes of transportation, such as autonomous or more fuel efficient trucks, (ii) legislation that eliminates or significantly increases the size or weight limitations applied to motor carriers, or (iii) legislation or regulatory changes that impose operating restrictions on railroads or that adversely affect the profitability of some or all railroad traffic. Additionally, any future consolidation of the rail industry could materially affect our competitive environment.
Our assets are exposed to unplanned interruptions caused by events outside of our control which may disrupt our business and cause damage or losses that may not be adequately covered by insurance.
The operations of infrastructure projects are exposed to unplanned interruptions caused by breakdown or failure of equipment or plants, aging infrastructure, employee error or contractor or subcontractor failure, problems that delay or increase the cost of returning facilities to service after outages, limitations that may be imposed by equipment conditions or environmental, safety or other regulatory requirements, fuel supply or fuel transportation reductions or interruptions, labor disputes, difficulties with the implementation or operation of information systems, derailments, power outages, pipeline or electricity line ruptures and catastrophic events, such as hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, floods, explosions, fires or other disasters. Any equipment or system outage or constraint can, among other things, reduce sales, increase costs and affect the ability to meet regulatory service metrics, customer expectations and regulatory reliability and security requirements. We have in the past experienced power outages at plants which disrupted their operations and negatively impacted our revenues. We cannot assure you that similar events may not occur in the future. Operational disruption, as well as supply disruption, and increased government oversight could adversely impact the cash flows available from these assets. In addition, the cost of repairing or replacing damaged assets could be considerable. Repeated or prolonged interruption may result in temporary or permanent loss of customers, substantial litigation or penalties for regulatory or contractual non-compliance, and any loss from such events may not be recoverable under relevant insurance policies. Although we believe that we are adequately insured against these types of events no assurance can be given that the occurrence of any such event will not materially adversely affect us.
We are actively evaluating potential acquisitions of assets and operating companies in other infrastructure sectors which could result in additional risks and uncertainties for our business and unexpected regulatory compliance costs.
While our existing portfolio consists of assets in the energy, port and rail sectors, we are actively evaluating potential acquisitions of assets and operating companies in other infrastructure sectors and we plan to be flexible as other attractive opportunities arise over time. To the extent we make acquisitions in other sectors, we will face numerous risks and uncertainties, including risks associated with the required investment of capital and other resources and with combining or integrating operational and management systems and controls. Entry into certain lines of business may subject us to new laws and regulations and may lead to increased litigation and regulatory risk. Many types of infrastructure assets, including certain rail and seaport assets, are subject to registration requirements by U.S. governmental agencies, as well as foreign governments if such assets are to be used outside of the United States. Failing to register the assets, or losing such registration, could result in substantial penalties, forced liquidation of the assets and/or the inability to operate and, if applicable, lease the assets. We may need to incur significant costs to comply with the laws and regulations applicable to any such new acquisition. The failure to comply with these laws and regulations could cause us to incur significant costs, fines or penalties or require the assets to be removed from service for a period of time resulting in reduced income from these assets. In addition, if our acquisitions in other sectors produce insufficient revenues, or produce investment losses, or if we are unable to efficiently manage our expanded operations, our results of operations will be adversely affected, and our reputation and business may be harmed.
Restrictive covenants in our debt agreements and the certificate of designations for our Series A Redeemable Preferred Stock may adversely affect us.
The instruments governing our outstanding debt contain, and the certificate of designations for our Series A Redeemable Preferred Stock and the indenture governing the 2027 Notes contain, certain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests. For example, these covenants significantly restrict our and certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to:
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incur indebtedness;
issue equity interests of the Company ranking pari passu with, or senior in priority to, the Series A Redeemable Preferred Stock;
issue equity interests of any subsidiary of the Company;
amend or repeal the certificate of incorporation or bylaws in a manner that is adverse to the holders of the Series A Redeemable Preferred Stock;
pay dividends or make other distributions;
repurchase or redeem capital stock or subordinated indebtedness and make investments;
create liens;
incur dividend or other payment restrictions affecting the Company and certain of its subsidiaries;
transfer or sell assets, including capital stock of subsidiaries;
merge or consolidate with other entities or transfer all or substantially all of the Company’s assets;
take actions to cause the Company to cease to be treated as a domestic C corporation for U.S. tax purposes;
consummate a change of control without concurrently redeeming our shares of Series A Redeemable Preferred Stock;
amend, terminate or permit the assignment or subcontract of, or the transfer of any rights or obligations under, the Management Agreement, in order to alter the (i) scope of services in any material respect, (ii) the compensation, fee payment or other economic terms relating to the Management Agreement, or (iii) the scope of matters expressly required to be approved by the Independent Directors (as such term is defined in the Management Agreement) pursuant to the Management Agreement;
engage in certain intercompany transactions;
engage in certain prohibited business activities; and
enter into transactions with affiliates.
While these covenants are subject to a number of important exceptions and qualifications, such restrictive covenants could affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities. Events beyond our control can affect our ability to comply with these covenants. If an event of default occurs, we cannot assure you that we would have sufficient assets to repay all of our obligations.
In addition, certain other debt instruments (including the Series 2020 Bonds, Series 2021 Bonds, the EB-5 loan agreements, and the Transtar Revolver) include restrictive covenants that may materially limit our ability to repay other debt or require us to achieve and maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. See “Description of Indebtedness” in the Information Statement filed with the SEC on Form 8-K on July 15, 2022.
Terrorist attacks or other hostilities could negatively impact our operations and our profitability and may expose us to liability and reputational damage.
Terrorist attacks may negatively affect our operations. Such attacks have contributed to economic instability in the United States and elsewhere, and further acts of terrorism, violence or war, including recent geopolitical events, could similarly affect world trade and the industries in which we and our customers operate. In addition, terrorist attacks or hostilities may directly impact locations where our trains and containers travel or our physical facilities or those of our customers. In addition, it is also possible that our assets could be involved in a terrorist attack or other hostilities. The consequences of any terrorist attacks or hostilities are unpredictable, and we may not be able to foresee events that could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Our inability to obtain sufficient capital would constrain our ability to grow our portfolio and to increase our revenues.
Our business is capital intensive, and we have used and may continue to employ leverage to finance our operations. Accordingly, our ability to successfully execute our business strategy and maintain our operations depends on the availability and cost of debt and equity capital. Additionally, our ability to borrow against our assets is dependent, in part, on the appraised value of such assets. If the appraised value of such assets declines, we may be required to reduce the principal outstanding under our debt facilities or otherwise be unable to incur new borrowings.
We can give no assurance that the capital we need will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. Our inability to obtain sufficient capital, or to renew or expand our credit facilities, could result in increased funding costs and would limit our ability to:
meet the terms and maturities of our existing and future debt facilities;
purchase new assets or refinance existing assets;
fund our working capital needs and maintain adequate liquidity; and
finance other growth initiatives.
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In addition, we conduct our operations so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”). As such, certain forms of financing such as finance leases may not be available to us. Please see “—If we are deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.”
The effects of various environmental regulations may negatively affect the industries in which we operate which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants to air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites and noise and emission levels and greenhouse gas emissions. Under some environmental laws in the United States, strict liability may be imposed on the owners or operators of assets, which could render us liable for environmental and natural resource damages without regard to negligence or fault on our part. In addition, changes to environmental standards or regulations in the industries in which we operate could limit the economic life of the assets we acquire or reduce their value, and also require us to make significant additional investments in order to maintain compliance, which would negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, a variety of new legislation is being enacted, or considered for enactment, at the federal, state and local levels relating to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. While there has historically been a lack of consistent climate change legislation, as climate change concerns continue to grow, further legislation and regulations are expected to continue in areas such as greenhouse gas emissions control, emission disclosure requirements and building codes or other infrastructure requirements that impose energy efficiency standards. Government mandates, standards or regulations intended to mitigate or reduce greenhouse gas emissions or projected climate change impacts could result in prohibitions or severe restrictions on infrastructure development in certain areas, increased energy and transportation costs, and increased compliance expenses and other financial obligations to meet permitting or development requirements that we may be unable to fully recover (due to market conditions or other factors), any of which could result in reduced profits and adversely affect our results of operations. While we typically maintain liability insurance coverage, the insurance coverage is subject to large deductibles, limits on maximum coverage and significant exclusions and may not be sufficient or available to protect against any or all liabilities and such indemnities may not cover or be sufficient to protect us against losses arising from environmental damage. In addition, changes to environmental standards or regulations in the industries in which we operate could limit the economic life of the assets we acquire or reduce their value, and also require us to make significant additional investments in order to maintain compliance, which would negatively impact our cash flows and results of operations.
Our Repauno site and the Long Ridge property are subject to environmental laws and regulations that may expose us to significant costs and liabilities.
Our Repauno site is subject to ongoing environmental investigation and remediation by the former owner that sold Repauno to FTAI (the “Repauno Seller”) related to historic industrial operations. The Repauno Seller is responsible for completion of this work, and we benefit from a related indemnity and insurance policy. If the Repauno Seller fails to fulfill its investigation and remediation, or indemnity obligations and the related insurance, which are subject to limits and conditions, fail to cover our costs, we could incur losses. Redevelopment of the property in those areas undergoing investigation and remediation must await state environmental agency confirmation that no further investigation or remediation is required before redevelopment activities can occur in such areas of the property. Therefore, any delay in the Repauno Seller’s completion of the environmental work or receipt of related approvals in an area of the property could delay our redevelopment activities. In addition, once received, permits and approvals may be subject to litigation, and projects may be delayed or approvals reversed or modified in litigation. If there is a delay in obtaining any required regulatory approval, it could delay projects and cause us to incur costs.
In connection with FTAI’s acquisition of Long Ridge, the former owner that sold FTAI the property (the “Long Ridge Seller”) is obligated to perform certain post-closing demolition activities, remove specified containers, equipment and structures and conduct investigation, removal, cleanup and decontamination related thereto. The Long Ridge Seller is responsible for ongoing environmental remediation related to historic industrial operations on and off Long Ridge. In addition, Long Ridge is located adjacent to the former Ormet Corporation Superfund site (the “Ormet site”), which is owned and operated by the Long Ridge Seller. Pursuant to an order with the U.S. EPA, the Long Ridge Seller is obligated to pump groundwater that has been impacted by the adjacent Ormet site beneath our site and discharge it to the Ohio River and monitor the groundwater annually. Long Ridge is also subject to an environmental covenant related to the adjacent Ormet site that, inter alia, restricts the use of groundwater beneath our site and requires U.S. EPA consent for activities on Long Ridge that could disrupt the groundwater monitoring or pumping. The Long Ridge Seller is contractually obligated to complete its regulatory obligations on Long Ridge and we benefit from a related indemnity and insurance policy. If the Long Ridge Seller fails to fulfill its demolition, removal, investigation, remediation, monitoring, or indemnity obligations, and if the related insurance, which is subject to limits and conditions, fails to cover our costs, we could incur losses. Redevelopment of the property in those areas undergoing investigation and remediation pursuant to the Ohio EPA order must await state environmental agency confirmation that no further investigation or remediation is required before redevelopment activities can occur in such area of the property. Therefore, any delay in the Long Ridge Seller’s completion of the environmental work or receipt of related approvals or consents from Ohio EPA or U.S. EPA could delay our redevelopment activities.
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In addition, a portion of Long Ridge was recently redeveloped as a combined cycle gas-fired electric generating facility, and other portions will likely be redeveloped in the future. Although we have not identified material impacts to soils or groundwater that reasonably would be expected to prevent or delay further redevelopment projects, impacted materials could be encountered that require special handling and/or result in delays to those projects. Any additional projects may require environmental permits and approvals from federal, state and local environmental agencies. Once received, permits and approvals may be subject to litigation, and projects may be delayed or approvals reversed or modified in litigation. If there is a delay in obtaining any required regulatory approval, it could delay projects and cause us to incur costs.
Moreover, new, stricter environmental laws, regulations or enforcement policies, including those imposed in response to climate change, could be implemented that significantly increase our compliance costs, or require us to adopt more costly methods of operation. If we are not able to transform Repauno or Long Ridge into hubs for industrial and energy development in a timely manner, their future prospects could be materially and adversely affected, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
A cyberattack that bypasses our information technology (“IT”) security systems or the IT security systems of our third-party providers, causing an IT security breach, may lead to a disruption of our IT systems and the loss of business information which may hinder our ability to conduct our business effectively and may result in lost revenues and additional costs.
Parts of our business depend on the secure operation of our IT systems and the IT systems of our third-party providers to manage, process, store, and transmit information. We have, from time to time, experienced threats to our data and systems, including malware and computer virus attacks. A cyberattack that bypasses our IT security systems or the IT security systems of our third-party providers, causing an IT security breach, could adversely impact our daily operations and lead to the loss of sensitive information, including our own proprietary information and that of our customers, suppliers and employees. Such losses could harm our reputation and result in competitive disadvantages, litigation, regulatory enforcement actions, lost revenues, additional costs and liabilities. While we devote substantial resources to maintaining adequate levels of cyber-security, our resources and technical sophistication may not be adequate to prevent all types of cyberattacks.
If we are deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We conduct our operations so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act. Section 3(a)(1)(A) of the Investment Company Act defines an investment company as any issuer that is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. Section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Investment Company Act defines an investment company as any issuer that is engaged or proposes to engage in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of the issuer’s total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. Excluded from the term “investment securities,” among other things, are U.S. government securities and securities issued by entities which are at least 50% owned that are not themselves investment companies and are not relying on the exception from the definition of investment company for certain privately offered investment vehicles set forth in Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act.
The Investment Company Act may limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to enter into financing leases and engage in other types of financial activity because less than 40% of the value of our and our subsidiaries’ total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis can consist of “investment securities.”
If we or any of our subsidiaries were required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, the registered entity would become subject to substantial regulation that would significantly change our operations, and we would not be able to conduct our business as described in this report. We have not obtained a formal determination from the SEC as to our status under the Investment Company Act and, consequently, any violation of the Investment Company Act would subject us to material adverse consequences.
We have material customer concentration with respect to the Jefferson Terminal and Railroad businesses, with a limited number of customers accounting for a material portion of our revenues.
We earned approximately 10% and 15% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 from one customer in the Jefferson Terminal segment, respectively, and 51% and 45% of our revenue from one customer in the Railroad segment during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, accounts receivable from three customers from the Jefferson Terminal and Railroad segments represented 55% of total accounts receivable, net. As of December 31, 2021, accounts receivable from two customers from the Jefferson Terminal and Railroad segments represented 48% of total accounts receivable, net.
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There are inherent risks whenever a large percentage of total revenues are concentrated with a limited number of customers. It is not possible for us to predict the future level of demand for our services that will be generated by these customers or the future demand for the products and services of these customers in the end-user marketplace. In addition, revenues from these customers may fluctuate from time to time based on the commencement and completion of projects, the timing of which may be affected by market conditions or other factors, some of which may be outside of our control. If any of these customers experience declining or delayed sales due to market, economic or competitive conditions, we could be pressured to reduce the prices we charge for our services or we could lose a major customer. Any such development could have an adverse effect on our margins and financial position, and would negatively affect our revenues and results of operations and/or trading price of our common stock.
The acquisition of Transtar may not achieve its intended results and we may be unable to successfully integrate the operations of Transtar.
On July 28, 2021, FTAI completed the previously announced acquisition of 100% of the equity interests of Transtar (the “Transtar Acquisition”), a wholly owned short-line railroad subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation (the “Seller”). Transtar is comprised of five short-line freight railroads and one switching company, including two that connect to Seller’s largest production facilities in North America: the Gary Railway Company, Indiana; The Lake Terminal Railroad Company, Ohio; Union Railroad Company LLC, Pennsylvania; Fairfield Southern Company Inc., Alabama (switching company); Delray Connecting Railroad Company, Michigan; and the Texas & Northern Railroad Company, Texas. We acquired Transtar from FTAI in connection with the spin-off transaction, along with the rest of our operating businesses.
As a result, we are subject to certain risks relating to the Transtar Acquisition, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, some of which may be exacerbated by the spin-off transaction. Such risks may include, but are not limited to:
failure to successfully integrate Transtar in a manner that permits us to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition;
difficulties and delays integrating Transtar’s personnel, operations and systems and retaining key employees, including as a result of the spin-off transaction;
higher than anticipated costs incurred in connection with the integration of the business and operations of Transtar, including as a result of the spin-off transaction;
challenges in operating and managing rail lines across geographically disparate regions;
disruptions to our ongoing business and diversions of our management’s attention caused by transition or integration activities involving Transtar, including as a result of the spin-off transaction;
challenges with implementing adequate and appropriate controls, procedures and policies in Transtar’s business, including as a result of the spin-off transaction;
Transtar’s dependence on the Seller as its primary customer;
difficulties expanding our customer base;
assumption of pre-existing contractual relationships of Transtar that we may not have otherwise entered into, the termination or modification of which may be costly or disruptive to our business; and
any potential litigation arising from the transaction.
The successful integration of a new business also depends on our ability to manage the new business, realize forecasted synergies and full value from the combined business. Our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected if we are unable to successfully integrate Transtar.
Adverse judgments or settlements in legal proceedings could materially harm our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We may be party to claims that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of our business, which may include those related to, for example, contracts, sub-contracts, employment of our workforce and immigration requirements or compliance with any of a wide array of state and federal statutes, rules and regulations that pertain to different aspects of our business. We may also be required to initiate expensive litigation or other proceedings to protect our business interests. There is a risk that we will not be successful or otherwise be able to satisfactorily resolve any pending or future litigation. In addition, litigation and other legal claims are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of currently pending legal matters may change in the future. Those uncertainties include, but are not limited to, litigation costs and attorneys’ fees, unpredictable judicial or jury decisions and the differing laws regarding damage awards among the states in which we operate. Unexpected outcomes in such legal proceedings, or changes in management’s evaluation or predictions of the likely outcomes of such proceedings (possibly resulting in changes in established reserves), could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure
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The terms of our Series A Preferred Stock have provisions that could result in the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock having the ability to elect a majority of our board of directors in the case of an Event of Noncompliance, including our failure to pay amounts due upon redemption of Series A Preferred Stock.
The terms of our Series A Preferred Stock include certain events of noncompliance, including among other things, (i) failure to redeem such shares when we are required to do so, (ii) failure to pay cash dividends for 12 monthly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive) following the second anniversary of the issuance date, (iii) an event where any shares of Series A Preferred Stock remaining outstanding on the eighth anniversary of the issuance date, (iv) failure to have a board of directors comprised of a majority of independent directors at any time on or after December 31, 2022 (subject to the specified cure period), (v) any breach of a material term in the certificate of designations for our Series A Preferred Stock, (vi) certain debt acceleration events, (vii) certain bankruptcy events and (viii) a breach of a restrictive covenant set forth in the certificate of designations for our Series A Preferred Stock (each, an “Event of Noncompliance”). If the Company fails to cure an Event of Noncompliance (to the extent curable), (i) the size of our board of directors will automatically increase to a number sufficient to constitute a majority of the board of directors, (ii) the majority of the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock will have the right to designate and elect a majority of the members of our board of directors, and (iii) other than with respect to the election of directors, the shares of Series A Preferred Stock will vote with our common stock as a single class (with the number of votes per share determined in accordance with the certificate of designations for our Series A Preferred Stock). Such remedies could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition.
The failure of the Company to pay required dividends on its Series A Preferred Stock following the second anniversary of the issuance date may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition.
Following the second anniversary of the issuance date, the Company is required to pay cash dividends equal to the cash dividend rate. The cash dividend rate will be equal to 14.0% per annum subject to increase in accordance with the terms of the Series A Preferred Stock. Specifically, the rate will be increased by 2.0% per annum for any periods during the first two years following closing where the dividend is not paid in cash. Prior to the second anniversary of the issuance date of the Series A Preferred Stock, such dividends will automatically accrue and accumulate on each share of Series A Preferred Stock, whether or not declared and paid, or they may be paid in cash at FTAI Infrastructure’s discretion. Further, after the second anniversary of the issuance date, if the Company fails to pay such cash dividends when required to do so, the dividend rate would be equal to 18.0% per annum, subject to increase as described below, until all such dividends are paid in cash. Our failure to pay such dividends for 12 monthly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive) following the second anniversary of the issuance date would result in an Event of Noncompliance. If we are unable to cure an Event of Noncompliance (to the extent curable), (i) the size of our board of directors will automatically increase to a number sufficient to constitute a majority of the board of directors, (ii) the majority of the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock will have the right to designate and elect a majority of the members of our board of directors, and (iii) other than with respect to the election of directors, the shares of Series A Preferred Stock will vote with our common stock as a single class (with the number of votes per share determined in accordance with the certificate of designations for our Series A Preferred Stock). Such remedies could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Manager
We are dependent on our Manager and other key personnel at Fortress and may not find suitable replacements if our Manager terminates the Management Agreement or if other key personnel depart.
Our officers and other individuals who perform services for us (other than Jefferson Terminal, Repauno, Long Ridge, Transtar, Aleon and Gladieux, KRS, Clean Planet USA, FYX, CarbonFree and Containers employees) are employees of our Manager or other Fortress entities. We are completely reliant on our Manager, which has significant discretion as to the implementation of our operating policies and strategies, to conduct our business. We are subject to the risk that our Manager will terminate the Management Agreement and that we will not be able to find a suitable replacement for our Manager in a timely manner, at a reasonable cost, or at all. Furthermore, we are dependent on the services of certain key employees of our Manager and certain key employees of Fortress entities whose compensation is partially or entirely dependent upon the amount of management fees earned by our Manager and whose continued service is not guaranteed, and the loss of such personnel or services could materially adversely affect our operations. We do not have key man insurance for any of the personnel of the Manager or other Fortress entities that are key to us. An inability to find a suitable replacement for any departing employee of our Manager or Fortress entities on a timely basis could materially adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business.
In addition, our Manager may assign our Management Agreement to an entity whose business and operations are managed or supervised by Mr. Wesley R. Edens, who is a principal, Co-Chief Executive Officer and a member of the board of directors of Fortress, an affiliate of our Manager, and a member of the management committee of Fortress since co-founding Fortress in May 1998. In the event of any such assignment to a non-affiliate of Fortress, the functions currently performed by our Manager’s current personnel may be performed by others. We can give you no assurance that such personnel would manage our operations in the same manner as our Manager currently does, and the failure by the personnel of any such entity to acquire assets generating attractive risk-adjusted returns could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
On December 27, 2017, SoftBank completed the SoftBank Merger. In connection with the SoftBank Merger, Fortress operates within SoftBank as an independent business headquartered in New York.
There are conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager.
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Our Management Agreement was not negotiated at arm’s-length, and its terms, including fees payable, may not be as favorable to us as if they had been negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.
There are conflicts of interest inherent in our relationship with our Manager insofar as our Manager and its affiliates—including investment funds, private investment funds, or businesses managed by our Manager, including Florida East Coast Industries, LLC (“FECI”)—invest in transportation and transportation-related infrastructure assets and whose investment objectives overlap with our asset acquisition objectives. Certain opportunities appropriate for us may also be appropriate for one or more of these other investment vehicles. Certain members of our board of directors and employees of our Manager who are our officers also serve as officers and/or directors of these other entities. Although we have the same Manager, we may compete with entities affiliated with our Manager or Fortress, including FECI, for certain target assets. From time to time, entities affiliated with or managed by our Manager or Fortress may focus on investments in assets with a similar profile as our target assets that we may seek to acquire. These affiliates may have meaningful purchasing capacity, which may change over time depending upon a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, available equity capital and debt financing, market conditions and cash on hand. Fortress has multiple existing and planned funds focused on investing in one or more of our target sectors, each with significant current or expected capital commitments. In connection with the spin-off, we received assets previously purchased by FTAI, and we may in the future purchase assets from these funds, and FTAI has previously co-invested and we may in the future co-invest with these funds in infrastructure assets. Fortress funds generally have a fee structure similar to ours, but the fees actually paid will vary depending on the size, terms and performance of each fund.
Our Management Agreement generally does not limit or restrict our Manager or its affiliates from engaging in any business or managing other pooled investment vehicles that invest in assets that meet our asset acquisition objectives. Our Manager intends to engage in additional infrastructure related management and other investment opportunities in the future, which may compete with us for investments or result in a change in our current investment strategy. In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that if any of the Fortress Parties or any of their officers, directors or employees acquire knowledge of a potential transaction that could be a corporate opportunity, they have no duty, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to offer such corporate opportunity to us, our stockholders or our affiliates. In the event that any of our directors and officers who is also a director, officer or employee of any of the Fortress Parties or their affiliates acquires knowledge of a corporate opportunity or is offered a corporate opportunity, provided that this knowledge was not acquired solely in such person’s capacity as a director or officer of us and such person acts in good faith, then to the fullest extent permitted by law such person is deemed to have fully satisfied such person’s fiduciary duties owed to us and is not liable to us if any of the Fortress Parties, or their respective affiliates, pursues or acquires the corporate opportunity or if such person did not present the corporate opportunity to us.
The ability of our Manager and its officers and employees to engage in other business activities, subject to the terms of our Management Agreement, may reduce the amount of time our Manager, its officers or other employees spend managing us. In addition, we may engage (subject to our strategy) in material transactions with our Manager or another entity managed by our Manager or one of its affiliates, including FTAI and FECI, which may include, but are not limited to, certain acquisitions, financing arrangements, purchases of debt, co-investments, consumer loans, servicing advances and other assets that present an actual, potential or perceived conflict of interest. Our board of directors adopted a policy regarding the approval of any “related party transactions” pursuant to which certain of the material transactions described above may require disclosure to, and approval by, the independent members of our board of directors. Actual, potential or perceived conflicts have given, and may in the future give, rise to investor dissatisfaction, litigation or regulatory inquiries or enforcement actions. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and our reputation could be damaged if we fail, or appear to fail, to deal appropriately with one or more potential, actual or perceived conflicts of interest. Regulatory scrutiny of, or litigation in connection with, conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including causing an inability to raise additional funds, a reluctance of counterparties to do business with us, a decrease in the prices of our equity securities and a resulting increased risk of litigation and regulatory enforcement actions.
The structure of our Manager’s compensation arrangements may have unintended consequences for us. We have agreed to pay our Manager a management fee that is based on different measures of performance. Consequently, there may be conflicts in the incentives of our Manager to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for us. Investments with higher yield potential are generally riskier or more speculative than investments with lower yield potential. This could result in increased risk to the value of our portfolio of assets and our common stock.
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Our directors have approved a broad asset acquisition strategy for our Manager and will not approve each acquisition we make at the direction of our Manager. In addition, we may change our strategy without a stockholder vote, which may result in our acquiring assets that are different, riskier or less profitable than our current assets.
Our Manager is authorized to follow a broad asset acquisition strategy. We may pursue other types of acquisitions as market conditions evolve. Our Manager makes decisions about our investments in accordance with broad investment guidelines adopted by our board of directors. Accordingly, we may, without a stockholder vote, change our target sectors and acquire a variety of assets that differ from, and are possibly riskier than, our current asset portfolio. Consequently, our Manager has great latitude in determining the types and categories of assets it may decide are proper investments for us, including the latitude to invest in types and categories of assets that may differ from those in our existing portfolio. Our directors will periodically review our strategy and our portfolio of assets. However, our board will not review or pre-approve each proposed acquisition or our related financing arrangements. In addition, in conducting periodic reviews, the directors will rely primarily on information provided to them by our Manager. Furthermore, transactions entered into by our Manager may be difficult or impossible to reverse by the time they are reviewed by the directors even if the transactions contravene the terms of the Management Agreement. In addition, we may change our asset acquisition strategy, including our target asset classes, without a stockholder vote.
Our asset acquisition strategy may evolve in light of existing market conditions and investment opportunities, and this evolution may involve additional risks depending upon the nature of the assets we target and our ability to finance such assets on a short or long-term basis. Opportunities that present unattractive risk-return profiles relative to other available opportunities under particular market conditions may become relatively attractive under changed market conditions and changes in market conditions may therefore result in changes in the assets we target. Decisions to make acquisitions in new asset categories present risks that may be difficult for us to adequately assess and could therefore reduce or eliminate our ability to pay dividends on our common stock or have adverse effects on our liquidity or financial condition. A change in our asset acquisition strategy may also increase our exposure to interest rate, foreign currency or credit market fluctuations. In addition, a change in our asset acquisition strategy may increase our use of non-match-funded financing, increase the guarantee obligations we agree to incur or increase the number of transactions we enter into with affiliates. Our failure to accurately assess the risks inherent in new asset categories or the financing risks associated with such assets could adversely affect our results of operations and our financial condition.
Our Manager will not be liable to us for any acts or omissions performed in accordance with the Management Agreement, including with respect to the performance of our assets.
Pursuant to our Management Agreement, our Manager will not assume any responsibility other than to render the services called for thereunder in good faith and will not be responsible for any action of our board of directors in following or declining to follow its advice or recommendations. Our Manager, its members, managers, officers, employees, sub-advisers and any other person controlling or Manager, will not be liable to us or any of our subsidiaries, to our board of directors, or our or any subsidiary’s stockholders or partners for any acts or omissions by our Manager, its members, managers, officers, employees, sub-advisers and any other person controlling or Manager, except liability to us, our stockholders, directors, officers and employees and persons controlling us, by reason of acts constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence or reckless disregard of our Manager’s duties under our Management Agreement. We will, to the full extent lawful, reimburse, indemnify and hold our Manager, its members, managers, officers and employees, sub-advisers and each other person, if any, controlling our Manager harmless of and from any and all expenses, losses, damages, liabilities, demands, charges and claims of any nature whatsoever (including attorneys’ fees) in respect of or arising from any acts or omissions of an indemnified party made in good faith in the performance of our Manager’s duties under our Management Agreement and not constituting such indemnified party’s bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence or reckless disregard of our Manager’s duties under our Management Agreement.
Our Manager’s due diligence of potential asset acquisitions or other transactions may not identify all pertinent risks, which could materially affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our Manager intends to conduct due diligence with respect to each asset acquisition opportunity or other transaction it pursues. It is possible, however, that our Manager’s due diligence processes will not uncover all relevant facts, particularly with respect to any assets we acquire from third parties. In these cases, our Manager may be given limited access to information about the asset and will rely on information provided by the seller of the asset. In addition, if asset acquisition opportunities are scarce, the process for selecting bidders is competitive, or the timeframe in which we are required to complete diligence is short, our ability to conduct a due diligence investigation may be limited, and we would be required to make decisions based upon a less thorough diligence process than would otherwise be the case. Accordingly, transactions that initially appear to be viable may prove not to be over time, due to the limitations of the due diligence process or other factors.
Risks Related to the Spin-off
We may be unable to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expect to achieve from our spin-off from FTAI.
We may not be able to achieve the full strategic and financial benefits that we expect will result from our spin-off from FTAI or such benefits may be delayed or may not occur at all. For example, there can be no assurance that analysts and investors will regard our corporate structure as clearer and simpler than the former FTAI corporate structure or place a greater value on our company as a stand-alone corporation than on our businesses being a part of FTAI.
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Our agreements with FTAI may not reflect terms that would have resulted from arm’s-length negotiations among unaffiliated third parties.
The agreements related to our spin-off from FTAI, including the Separation and Distribution Agreement (refer to Item 15. Exhibits, included herein), were negotiated in the context of our spin-off from FTAI while we were still part of FTAI and, accordingly, may not reflect terms that would have resulted from arm’s-length negotiations among unaffiliated third parties. The terms of the agreements we negotiated in the context of our spin-off related to, among other things, allocation of assets, liabilities, rights, indemnifications and other obligations among FTAI and us. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions” in the Information Statement filed with the SEC on Form 8-K on July 15, 2022.
The ownership by some of our executive officers and directors of common shares, options, or other equity awards of FTAI may create, or may create the appearance of, conflicts of interest.
Because some of our directors, officers and other employees of our Manager also currently hold positions with FTAI, they own FTAI common shares, options to purchase FTAI common shares or other equity awards. For example, Judith Hannaway and Ray Robinson are directors of both FTAI and FTAI Infrastructure. Ownership by some of our directors and officers of common shares or options to purchase common shares of FTAI, or any other equity awards, creates, or, may create the appearance of, conflicts of interest when these directors and officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for FTAI than they do for us.
We may compete with affiliates of and entities managed by our Manager, including FTAI, which could adversely affect our and their results of operations.
Affiliates of and entities managed by our Manager, including FTAI, are primarily engaged in the infrastructure and energy business and invest in, and actively manage, portfolios of infrastructure and energy investments and other assets. Affiliates of and entities managed by our Manager, including FTAI, are not restricted in any manner from competing with us. After the spin-off, affiliates of and entities managed by our Manager, including FTAI, may decide to invest in the same types of assets that we invest in. Furthermore, we have the same Manager and certain directors and officers are the same as FTAI and certain of our Manager’s other affiliates. See “—Risks Related to Our Manager—There are conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager.”
We share certain key directors and officers with FTAI, which means those officers do not devote their full time and attention to our affairs and the overlap may give rise to conflicts.
There is an overlap between certain key directors and officers of the Company and of FTAI subsidiaries. Kenneth Nicholson serves as both the chief executive officer of the Company and as a director of FTAI. As a result, not all of our executive officers devote their full time and attention to the Company’s affairs. In addition, Judith Hannaway and Ray Robinson are directors of both the Company and FTAI, and Joseph Adams, Jr. is the chairman of the board of directors of both the Company and FTAI, and continues to serve as the chief executive officer of FTAI. Shared directors and officers may have actual or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving or affecting each company. For example, there will be the potential for a conflict of interest when we on the one hand, and FTAI and its respective subsidiaries and successors on the other hand, are party to commercial transactions concerning the same or adjacent investments. In addition, certain of our directors and officers continue to own shares and/or options or other equity awards of FTAI. These ownership interests could create actual, apparent or potential conflicts of interest when these individuals are faced with decisions that could have different implications for our company and FTAI. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Our Manager and Management Agreement” in the Information Statement filed with the SEC on Form 8-K on July 15, 2022 for a discussion of certain procedures we instituted to help ameliorate such potential conflicts that may arise.
We incurred indebtedness in the form of the 2027 Notes in connection with the spin-off from FTAI, and the degree to which we are leveraged could cause a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In connection with the spin-off, we issued the 2027 Notes. We have historically relied in part upon FTAI to provide credit support or fund our working capital requirements and other cash requirements, but we are not able to rely on the earnings, assets or cash flow of FTAI, and FTAI does not provide credit support or funds to finance our working capital or other cash requirements. As a result, we are responsible for servicing our own debt and obtaining and maintaining sufficient working capital and other funds to satisfy our cash requirements. Our access to and cost of debt financing is different from the historical access to and cost of debt financing under FTAI. Differences in access to and cost of debt financing may result in differences in the interest rates charged to us on financings, as well as the amount of indebtedness, types of financing structures and debt markets that may be available to us. Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the 2027 Notes, as well as any future debt that we may incur, will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future from operations, financings and/or asset sales. Our ability to generate cash is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.
Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to limitations.
As of December 31, 2022, the entities that are included in our consolidated group for U.S. federal income tax purposes had approximately $623.6 million of net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards, and we may continue to incur NOL carryforwards in the future. $168.5 million of our NOLs will begin to expire, if not utilized, in 2034, and $453.0 of our NOL carryforwards have no expiration date. Net operating losses that expire unused will be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. In addition,
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under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, federal net operating losses incurred in 2018 and in future years may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal net operating losses is limited. It is uncertain to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than fifty-percent (50%) change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three (3)-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. We may experience ownership change in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control and may not be prevented by the restrictions on the transferability and ownership of our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock and other interests treated as our “stock” in our certificate of incorporation. If an ownership change occurs and our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards is materially limited, it would harm our future operating results by effectively increasing our future U.S. federal income tax obligations. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of net operating loss carryforwards is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed by us.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
The market price and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our stockholders.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume in our common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our common stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your stock at or above your purchase price, if at all. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect our stock price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our stock include:
a shift in our investor base;
our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other comparable companies;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant investments, acquisitions or dispositions;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
the operating and share price performance of other comparable companies;
overall market fluctuations;
general economic conditions; and
developments in the markets and market sectors in which we participate.
Stock markets in the United States have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Market fluctuations, as well as general political and economic conditions, such as acts of terrorism, prolonged economic uncertainty, a recession or interest rate or currency rate fluctuations, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
An increase in market interest rates may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
One of the factors that investors may consider in deciding whether to buy or sell our stock is our distribution rate as a percentage of our stock price relative to market interest rates. If the market price of our common stock is based primarily on the earnings and return that we derive from our investments and income with respect to our investments and our related distributions to stockholders, and not from the market value of the investments themselves, then interest rate fluctuations and capital market conditions will likely affect the market price of our common stock. For instance, if market interest rates rise without an increase in our distribution rate, the market price of our common stock could decrease, as potential investors may require a higher distribution yield on our stock or seek other securities paying higher distributions or interest. In addition, rising interest rates would result in increased interest expense on our outstanding and future (variable and fixed) rate debt, thereby adversely affecting cash flows and our ability to service our indebtedness and pay distributions.
There can be no assurance that the market for our common stock will provide you with adequate liquidity.
There can be no assurance that an active trading market for our common stock will develop or be sustained in the future, and the market price of our stock may fluctuate widely, depending upon many factors, some of which may be beyond our control. These factors include, without limitation:
a shift in our investor base;
our quarterly or annual earnings and cash flows, or those of other comparable companies;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
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changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant investments, acquisitions, dispositions or other transactions;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our stock;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
market performance of affiliates and other counterparties with whom we conduct business;
the operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies;
our failure to maintain our exemption under the Investment Company Act or satisfy Nasdaq listing requirements;
negative public perception of us, our competitors or industry;
overall market fluctuations; and
general economic conditions.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
As a public company, we are required to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Internal control over financial reporting is complex and may be revised over time to adapt to changes in our business, or changes in applicable accounting rules. We may make investments through joint ventures and accounting for such investments can increase the complexity of maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting. We cannot assure you that our internal control over financial reporting will be effective in the future or that a material weakness will not be discovered with respect to a prior period for which we had previously believed that our internal control over financial reporting was effective. If we are not able to maintain or document effective internal control over financial reporting, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue an adverse opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Matters impacting our internal control over financial reporting may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis, or may cause us to restate previously issued financial information, and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions or investigations by the SEC, or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules. There could also be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in the reliability of our financial statements is also likely to suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm reports a material weakness in the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This could materially adversely affect us by, for example, leading to a decline in our stock price and impairing our ability to raise capital.
Your percentage ownership in us may be diluted in the future.
Your percentage ownership in us may be diluted in the future because of equity awards that we expect will be granted to our Manager, to the directors, officers and employees of our Manager who perform services for us, and to our directors, officers and employees, as well as other equity instruments such as debt and equity financing including, but not limited to, the Series A Preferred Stock and the Warrants.
On August 1, 2022, our board of directors adopted the FTAI Infrastructure Inc. Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan (the “Plan”), which provides for the ability to grant compensation awards in the form of stock, options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, performance awards, manager awards, tandem awards, other stock-based awards (including restricted stock units) and non-stock-based awards, in each case to our Manager, to the directors, officers, employees, service providers, consultants and advisors of our Manager who perform services for us, and to our directors, officers, employees, service providers, consultants and advisors. We initially reserved 30,000,000 shares of our common stock for issuance under the Plan. On the date of any equity issuance by us during the ten-year term of the Plan, that number will be increased by a number of shares of our common stock equal to 10% of (i) the number of shares of our common stock newly issued by us in such equity issuance or (ii) if such equity issuance relates to equity securities other than our common stock, the number of shares of our common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing the gross capital raised in such equity issuance by the fair market value of a share of our common stock as of the date of such equity issuance (such quotient, the “Equity Security Factor”). The term of the Plan expires in 2032. For a more detailed description of the Plan, see “Management—FTAI Infrastructure Nonqualified Stock Option and Inventive Award Plan” in the Information Statement filed with the SEC on Form 8-K on July 15, 2022. Upon the successful completion of an equity offering by us, we will issue to our Manager (or an affiliate of our Manager), as compensation for our Manager’s role in raising capital for us, options to purchase shares of our common stock equal to up to 10% of (i) the aggregate number of shares of our common stock being issued in such offering or (ii) if such equity issuance relates to equity securities other than shares of our common stock, the number of shares of our common stock equal to the Equity Security Factor. In addition, the compensation committee of our board of directors has the authority to grant such other awards to our Manager as it deems advisable; provided that no such award may be granted to our Manager in connection with any issuance by us of equity securities in excess of 10% of (i) the maximum number of shares of our common stock then being issued or (ii) if
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such equity issuance relates to equity securities other than shares of our common stock, the maximum number of shares of our common stock determined in accordance with the Equity Security Factor.
Our common stock is subject to ownership and transfer restrictions intended to preserve our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes.
We have incurred and may also continue to incur significant net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes, the amount and availability of which are subject to certain qualifications, limitations, and uncertainties. Our certificate of incorporation imposes certain restrictions on the transferability and ownership of our common stock, preferred stock, and other interests treated as our “stock” (such stock and other interests, the “Corporation Securities,” such restrictions on transferability and ownership, the “Ownership Restrictions”) in order to reduce the possibility of an equity ownership shift that could result in limitations on our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Any acquisition of Corporation Securities that results in a stockholder being in violation of these restrictions may not be valid.
Subject to certain exceptions (including with respect to Initial Substantial Stockholders, as defined in our certificate of incorporation), the Ownership Restrictions will restrict (i) any person or entity (including certain groups of persons) from directly or indirectly acquiring 4.8% or more of the outstanding Corporation Securities and (ii) the ability of any person or entity (including certain groups of persons) already owning, directly or indirectly, 4.8% or more of the Corporation Securities to increase their proportionate interest in, or to sell, the Corporation Securities. Any transferee receiving Corporation Securities that would result in a violation of the Ownership Restrictions will not be recognized as an FTAI Infrastructure stockholder or entitled to any rights of stockholders, including, without limitation, the right to vote and receive dividends or distributions, whether liquidating or otherwise, in each case, with respect to the Corporation Securities causing the violation. FTAI Infrastructure common stockholders whose ownership violates the Ownership Restrictions at the time of the spin-off will not be required to sell their FTAI Infrastructure common stock, but may be prevented from acquiring more Corporation Securities.
The Ownership Restrictions will remain in effect until the earlier of (i) the date on which Section 382 of the Code is repealed, amended, or modified in such a way as to render the restrictions imposed by Section 382 of the Code no longer applicable to us or (ii) a determination by the board of directors that (1) an ownership change would not result in a substantial limitation on our ability to use our available net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes; (2) no significant value attributable to our available net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes would be preserved by continuing the transfer restrictions; or (3) it is not in our best interests to continue the Ownership Restrictions. The Ownership Restrictions may also be waived by the board of directors on a case by case basis. There is no assurance, however, that the Company will not experience a future ownership change under Section 382 that may significantly limit its ability to use its NOL carryforwards as a result of such a waiver or otherwise.
The Ownership Restrictions described above could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from acquiring, a large block of our common stock. This may adversely affect the marketability of our common stock by discouraging existing or potential investors from acquiring our stock or additional shares of our stock. It is also possible that the transfer restrictions could delay or frustrate the removal of incumbent directors and could make more difficult a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving us, or impede an attempt to acquire a significant or controlling interest in us, even if such events might be beneficial to us and our stockholders.
You are advised to carefully monitor your ownership of our common stock and consult your legal advisors to determine whether your ownership of our common stock violates the ownership restrictions that are in our certificate of incorporation.
We may incur or issue debt or issue equity, which may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
We may in the future incur or issue debt or issue equity or equity-related securities. In the event of our liquidation, lenders and holders of our debt and holders of our preferred stock (if any) would receive a distribution of our available assets before common stockholders. Any future incurrence or issuance of debt would increase our interest cost and could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. We are not required to offer any additional equity securities to existing common stockholders on a preemptive basis. Therefore, additional issuances of common stock, directly or through convertible or exchangeable securities, warrants or options including, but not limited to, the Warrants, will dilute the holdings of our existing common stockholders and such issuances, or the perception of such issuances, may reduce the market price of our common stock. Any additional preferred stock issued by us would likely have, a preference on distribution payments, periodically or upon liquidation, which could eliminate or otherwise limit our ability to make distributions to common stockholders. Because our decision to incur or issue debt or issue equity or equity-related securities in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. Thus, stockholders bear the risk that our future incurrence or issuance of debt or issuance of equity or equity-related securities will adversely affect the market price of our stock.
Provisions of Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws, prevent or delay an acquisition of our company, which could decrease the market price of our common stock.
Delaware law contains, and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the raider and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include, among others:
a classified board of directors with staggered three-year terms;
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provisions regarding the election of directors, classes of directors, the term of office of directors and the filling of director vacancies;
provisions regarding corporate opportunity;
removal of directors only for cause and only with the affirmative vote of at least 80% of the then issued and outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors;
our board of directors to determine the powers, preferences and rights of our preferred stock and to issue such preferred stock without stockholder approval;
advance notice requirements applicable to stockholders for director nominations and actions to be taken at annual meetings;
a prohibition will be in our certificate of incorporation that states that directors will be elected by plurality vote, a provision which means that the holders of a majority of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock can elect all the directors standing for election;
a requirement in our bylaws specifically denying the ability of our stockholders to consent in writing to take any action in lieu of taking such action at a duly called annual or special meeting of our stockholders; and
our Corporation Securities are subject to ownership and transfer restrictions in order to reduce the possibility of an equity ownership shift that could result in limitations on our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Public stockholders who might desire to participate in these types of transactions may not have an opportunity to do so, even if the transaction is considered favorable to stockholders. These anti-takeover provisions could substantially impede the ability of public stockholders to benefit from a change in control or a change in our management and board of directors and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and your ability to realize any potential change of control premium.
Our bylaws contain exclusive forum provisions for certain claims, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our bylaws, to the fullest extent permitted by law, provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a duty (including any fiduciary duty) owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents arising out of or relating to any provision of the DGCL or our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware. As described below, this provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act, or rules and regulations thereunder.
Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder and our bylaws will provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Our decision to adopt such a federal forum provision followed a decision by the Supreme Court of the State of Delaware holding that such provisions are facially valid under Delaware law. While there can be no assurance that federal or state courts will follow the holding of the Delaware Supreme Court or determine that our federal forum provision should be enforced in a particular case, application of our federal forum provision means that suits brought by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act must be brought in federal court and cannot be brought in state court.
Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder and our bylaws will provide that the exclusive forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Accordingly, actions by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder must be brought in federal court. Our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to our exclusive forum provisions, including the federal forum provision; provided, however, that stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Additionally, our stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. These provisions may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees and agents. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
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While we currently intend to pay regular quarterly dividends to our stockholders, we may change our dividend policy at any time.
Although we currently intend to pay regular quarterly dividends to holders of our common stock, we may change our dividend policy at any time. Our net cash provided by operating activities could be less than the amount of distributions to our stockholders. The declaration and payment of dividends to holders of our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including actual results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, net cash provided by operating activities, restrictions imposed by applicable law, limitations under our contractual agreements, including the agreements governing the New Financing, our taxable income, our operating expenses and other factors our board of directors deem relevant. There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay dividends in amounts or on a basis consistent with prior distributions to our investors, if at all. Because we are a holding company and have no direct operations, we will only be able to pay dividends from our available cash on hand and any funds we receive from our subsidiaries and our ability to receive distributions from our subsidiaries may be limited by the financing agreements to which they are subject.
As a public company, we will incur additional costs and face increased demands on our management.
As a newly independent public company with shares listed on Nasdaq, we need to comply with an extensive body of regulations that did not apply to us previously, including certain provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, regulations of the SEC and requirements of Nasdaq. These rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we must have independent directors and board committees.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they downgrade their recommendations regarding our common stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If any of the analysts who may cover us downgrades our common stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price may decline. If analysts cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our common stock price or trading volume to decline and our common stock to be less liquid.
Our determination of how much leverage to use to finance our acquisitions may adversely affect our return on our assets and may reduce funds available for distribution.
We utilize leverage to finance many of our asset acquisitions, which entitles certain lenders to cash flows prior to retaining a return on our assets. While our Manager targets using only what we believe to be reasonable leverage, our strategy does not limit the amount of leverage we may incur with respect to any specific asset. The return we are able to earn on our assets may be significantly reduced due to changes in market conditions, which may cause the cost of our financing to increase relative to the income that can be derived from our assets.
Non-U.S. persons that hold or have held (actually or constructively) more than 5% of our common stock may be subject to U.S. federal income tax upon the disposition of some or all their stock.
If a non-U.S. person has held (actually or constructively) more than 5% of our common stock at any time within the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of a sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of our stock or the period that such non-U.S. person held our stock, and we were considered a “USRPHC” at any time during such period because of our current or previous ownership of U.S. real property interests above a certain threshold, such non-U.S. person may be subject to U.S. tax on such disposition of such stock (and may have a U.S. tax return filing obligation). A corporation generally is a USRPHC if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests, as defined in the Code and applicable Treasury regulations, equals or exceeds 50% of the aggregate fair market value of its worldwide real property interests and its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. We believe that we are and are likely to remain a USRPHC. If a non-U.S. person is subject to U.S. tax as described above, gain recognized on the disposition of our common stock generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis in the same manner as if the non-U.S. person were a U.S. person. In addition, if we are a USRPHC and our common stock ceased to be treated as “regularly traded on an established securities market,” a non-U.S. person would generally be subject to tax in the manner described in the preceding sentence regardless of what percentage of our common stock it owned, and the transferee in any disposition would generally be required to withhold 15% of the amount realized on the disposition. Non-U.S. stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of an investment in our stock.
Changes to United States federal income tax laws could materially and adversely affect us and our stockholders.
The present United States federal income tax laws may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial, or administrative action at any time, which could affect the United States federal income tax treatment of us or an investment in our common stock. The United States federal income tax rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the Internal Revenue Service, and the United States Treasury Department, which results in statutory changes as well as frequent revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect us and our stockholders.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
We have no unresolved staff comments.
Item 2. Properties
An affiliate of our Manager leases principal executive offices at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, 45th Floor, New York, NY 10105. Jefferson Terminal leases approximately 250 acres of property for its terminal facilities and leases approximately 12,300 square feet of office space in Texas. We are redeveloping Repauno, located in New Jersey, which includes over 1,600 acres of land, riparian rights, rail tracks and a 186,000 barrel underground storage cavern, to be a multi-purpose, multi-modal deepwater port. Transtar owns or has operating rights on (through easements, leases, licenses, or other arrangements) roughly 2,000 acres of real property in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Indiana. Additionally, FYX and our railcar cleaning business lease space in Kentucky and Maine, respectively. We believe that our office facilities and properties are suitable and adequate for our business as it is contemplated to be conducted.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are and may become involved in legal proceedings, including but not limited to regulatory investigations and inquiries, in the ordinary course of our business. Although we are unable to predict with certainty the eventual outcome of any litigation, regulatory investigation or inquiry, in the opinion of management, we do not expect our current and any threatened legal proceedings to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations. Given the inherent unpredictability of these types of proceedings, however, it is possible that future adverse outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock began trading on the NASDAQ under the symbol “FIP” on August 1, 2022, the date of the spin-off. There was no public trading market for our common stock before August 1, 2022. As of March 2, 2023, there were approximately 17 record holders of our common stock. This figure does not reflect the beneficial ownership of stock held in nominee name.
Although we currently intend to continue to pay regular quarterly dividends to holders of our common stock, we may change our dividend policy at any time and no assurances can be given that any future dividends will be paid or, if paid, as to the amounts or timing. The declaration and payment of dividends to holders of our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including actual results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, net cash provided by operating activities, restrictions imposed by applicable law, our taxable income, our operating expenses and other factors our board of directors deem relevant.
On March 1, 2023, our board of directors declared a cash dividend on our common stock of $0.03 per share for the quarter ended December 31, 2022, payable on March 28, 2023 to the holders of record on March 14, 2023.
Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan
On August 1, 2022, in connection with the spin-off, we established a Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan (“Incentive Plan”) which provides for the ability to award equity compensation awards in the form of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, and performance awards to eligible employees, consultants, directors, and other individuals who provide services to us, each as determined by the Compensation Committee of the board of directors. As of December 31, 2022, the Incentive Plan provides for the issuance of up to 30.0 million shares.
The following table summarizes the total number of outstanding securities in the Incentive Plan and the number of securities remaining for future issuance, as well as the weighted average strike price of all outstanding securities as of December 31, 2022.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Plan categoryNumber of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants, and rights Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants, and rights
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (1)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders14,394,835 $2.77 29,985,000 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total14,394,835 29,985,000 
______________________________________________________________________________________
(1) Excludes 15,000 stock options issued to directors as compensation.
35


Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total return for our common stock (stock price change plus reinvested dividends) with the comparable return of three indices: S&P Small Cap 400, Dow Jones US Transportation Services, and Alerian MLP. The graph assumes an investment of $100 in our common stock and in each of the indices on August 1, 2022 (the date of the spin-off), and that all dividends were reinvested. The past performance of our stock is not an indication of future performance.
COMPARISON OF 5 MONTH CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among FTAI Infrastructure Inc., the S&P SmallCap 600 Index, the Dow Jones US Transportation Services Index and the Alerian MLP Index
https://cdn.kscope.io/3d420bae4f61e8aad3528e321f2af3ec-ftai-20221231_g2.jpg
______________________________________________________________________________________
*$100 invested on 8/1/22 in stock or 7/31/22 in index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ending December 31.


(in whole dollars)
Index8/1/20229/30/202212/31/2022
FTAI Infrastructure Inc.$100.00 $72.73 $90.44 
S&P SmallCap 600100.00 86.17 94.09 
Dow Jones US Transportation Services100.00 77.74 95.59 
Alerian MLP100.00 96.06 105.77 

36


Item 6. [Reserved]


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to help you understand FTAI Infrastructure Inc. (“we”, “us”, “our”, or the “Company”). Our MD&A should be read in conjunction with our consolidated and combined consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes, and with Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
We are in the business of acquiring, developing and operating assets and businesses that represent critical infrastructure for customers in the transportation and energy industries. We were formed on December 13, 2021 as FTAI Infrastructure LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and subsidiary of Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC (“Former Parent”). Former Parent became a subsidiary of FTAI Aviation Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company and the surviving parent company (“FTAI Aviation”), upon completion of the transactions contemplated in that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger”) on November 10, 2022, between Former Parent and FTAI Aviation and certain other parties thereto. Except as otherwise specified, prior to the Merger, “FTAI” refers to Former Parent and, following the Merger, “FTAI” refers to FTAI Aviation, in each case including their consolidated subsidiaries. In connection with the spin-off, as described below, FTAI Infrastructure LLC converted into FTAI Infrastructure Inc., a Delaware corporation, and acquired all of the material assets and investments that comprised FTAI's infrastructure business (“FTAI Infrastructure”). Prior to the spin-off, we were a subsidiary of FTAI, a Nasdaq-listed company that is externally managed and advised by FIG LLC (the “Manager”), an affiliate of Fortress Investment Group LLC (“Fortress”).
Our operations consist of four primary business lines: (i) Railroad, (ii) Ports and Terminals, (iii) Power and Gas and (iv) Sustainability and Energy Transition. Our Railroad business primarily invests in and operates short line and regional railroads in North America. Our Ports and Terminals business, consisting of our Jefferson Terminal and Repauno segments, develops or acquires industrial properties in strategic locations that store and handle for third parties a variety of energy products, including crude oil, refined products and clean fuels. Through an equity method investment, our Power and Gas business develops and operates facilities, such as a 485 megawatt power plant at the Long Ridge terminal in Ohio, that leverage the property’s location and key attributes to generate incremental value. Our Sustainability and Energy Transition business focuses on investments in companies and assets that utilize green technology, produce sustainable fuels and products or enable customers to reduce their carbon footprint. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our Railroad business accounted for 57% of our total revenue and our Ports and Terminals business accounted for 25% of our total revenue. Corporate and other sources accounted for the remaining 18% of our total revenue.
We expect to continue to invest in such market sectors, and pursue additional investment opportunities in other infrastructure businesses and assets we believe to be attractive and meet our investment objectives. Our team focuses on acquiring a diverse group of long-lived assets or operating businesses that provide mission-critical services or functions to infrastructure networks and typically have high barriers to entry, strong margins, stable cash flows and upside from earnings growth and asset appreciation driven by increased use and inflation. We believe that there are a large number of acquisition opportunities in our markets and that our Manager’s expertise and business and financing relationships, together with our access to capital and generally available capital for infrastructure projects in today’s marketplace, will allow us to take advantage of these opportunities. As of December 31, 2022, we had total consolidated assets of $2.5 billion and total redeemable preferred stock and equity of $789.4 million.
Spin-Off of FTAI Infrastructure
On August 1, 2022, FTAI distributed to the holders of FTAI common shares one share of FTAI Infrastructure Inc. common stock for each FTAI common share held by such shareholder at the close of business on July 21, 2022.
FTAI Infrastructure Inc. was spun out as an entity taxed as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and holds FTAI’s (i) Transtar business, (ii) Jefferson Terminal business, (iii) Repauno business, (iv) Long Ridge investment, (v) Aleon and Gladieux investment, (vi) KRS business, (vii) Clean Planet USA investment, (viii) FYX business, (ix) CarbonFree business, and (x) Containers business. FTAI Infrastructure Inc. retained all related project-level debt of those entities. In connection with the spin-off, FTAI Infrastructure Inc. entered into subscription agreements to issue $300.0 million of redeemable preferred stock and warrants and sold $500.0 million of 10.500% senior secured notes due 2027 (the “2027 Notes”), the net proceeds of which were remitted to FTAI in connection with the spin-off.
FTAI Infrastructure Inc. is externally managed by the Manager. In connection with the spin-off, FTAI Infrastructure Inc. entered into a management agreement with the Manager (the “Management Agreement”), with substantially the same terms as the previously held management agreement between the Former Parent and the Manager. The Management Agreement has an initial term of six years. The Manager is entitled to a management fee, incentive fees (comprised of income incentive fees and capital gains incentive fees) and reimbursement of certain expenses on substantially similar terms as the previously held agreements with the Manager, except that all fees are paid pursuant to the Management Agreement rather than by one of FTAI Infrastructure Inc.’s subsidiaries.
37


Operating Segments
Prior to the third quarter of 2022, we operated as three reportable segments. During the third quarter of 2022, we reorganized our historical operating segments into five operating segments as described below. Additionally, during the third quarter of 2022, we modified our definition of Adjusted EBITDA to exclude the impact of interest costs on pension and other post-employment benefits (“OPEB”) liabilities and dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock. All segment data and related disclosures for earlier periods presented herein have been recast to reflect the new segment reporting structure.
Our reportable segments represent strategic business units comprised of investments in different types of infrastructure assets. We have five reportable segments which operate in infrastructure businesses across several market sectors, all in North America. Our reportable segments are (i) Railroad, (ii) Jefferson Terminal, (iii) Repauno, (iv) Power and Gas and (v) Sustainability and Energy Transition. The Railroad segment is comprised of five freight railroads and one switching company that provide rail service to certain manufacturing and production facilities, in addition to KRS, a railcar cleaning operation. The Jefferson Terminal segment consists of a multi-modal crude oil and refined products terminal and other related assets. The Repauno segment consists of a 1,630-acre deep-water port located along the Delaware River with an underground storage cavern, a new multipurpose dock, a rail-to-ship transloading system and multiple industrial development opportunities. The Power and Gas segment is comprised of an equity method investment in Long Ridge, which is a 1,660-acre multi-modal terminal located along the Ohio River with rail, dock, and multiple industrial development opportunities, including a power plant in operation. The Sustainability and Energy Transition segment is comprised of Aleon/Gladieux, Clean Planet, and CarbonFree, and all three investments are development stage businesses focused on sustainability and recycling.
Corporate and Other primarily consists of unallocated corporate general and administrative expenses, management fees, debt and redeemable preferred stock. Additionally, Corporate and Other includes an investment in an unconsolidated entity engaged in the acquisition and leasing of shipping containers and an investment in the majority stake of an operating company that provides roadside assistance services for the intermodal and over-the-road trucking industries.
Results of Operations
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)
The chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) utilizes Adjusted EBITDA as the key performance measure. Adjusted EBITDA is not a financial measure in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S.GAAP”). This performance measure provides the CODM with the information necessary to assess operational performance, as well as make resource and allocation decisions. We believe Adjusted EBITDA is a useful metric for investors and analysts for similar purposes of assessing our operational performance.
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) attributable to stockholders and Former Parent, adjusted (a) to exclude the impact of provision for (benefit from) income taxes, equity-based compensation expense, acquisition and transaction expenses, losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations, changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments, asset impairment charges, incentive allocations, depreciation and amortization expense, interest expense, interest costs on pension and OPEB liabilities, and dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock, (b) to include the impact of our pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities, and (c) to exclude the impact of equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated entities and the non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA.



38


The following table presents our consolidated and combined consolidated results of operations:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202220212020 '22 vs ‘21 '21 vs '20
Revenues
Lease income$3,221 $2,424 $1,186 $797 $1,238 
Rail revenues147,804 61,514 4,424 86,290 57,090 
Terminal services revenues59,574 45,038 50,887 14,536 (5,849)
Crude marketing revenues — 8,210 — (8,210)
Roadside services revenue47,899 — — 47,899 — 
Other revenue3,468 11,243 3,855 (7,775)7,388 
Total revenues261,966 120,219 68,562 141,747 51,657 
Expenses
Operating expenses208,157 98,541 69,391 109,616 29,150 
General and administrative10,891 8,737 8,522 2,154 215 
Acquisition and transaction expenses16,844 14,826 1,658 2,018 13,168 
Management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate12,964 15,638 13,073 (2,674)2,565 
Depreciation and amortization70,749 54,016 31,114 16,733 22,902 
Total expenses319,605 191,758 123,758 127,847 68,000 
Other (expense) income
Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities(67,399)(13,499)(3,107)(53,900)(10,392)
(Loss) gain on sale of assets, net(1,603)16 (8)(1,619)24 
Loss on extinguishment of debt — (4,724)— 4,724 
Interest expense(53,239)(16,019)(10,764)(37,220)(5,255)
Other (expense) income(3,169)(8,930)92 5,761 (9,022)
Total other expense(125,410)(38,432)(18,511)(86,978)(19,921)
Loss before income taxes(183,049)(109,971)(73,707)(73,078)(36,264)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes4,468 (3,630)(1,984)8,098 (1,646)
Net loss(187,517)(106,341)(71,723)(81,176)(34,618)
Less: Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest in consolidated subsidiaries(33,933)(26,472)(16,522)(7,461)(9,950)
Less: Dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock23,657 — — 23,657 — 
Net loss attributable to stockholders and Former Parent$(177,241)$(79,869)$(55,201)$(97,372)$(24,668)

39



The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net loss attributable to stockholders and Former Parent to Adjusted EBITDA:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202220212020 '22 vs ‘21 '21 vs '20
Net loss attributable to stockholders and Former Parent$(177,241)$(79,869)$(55,201)$(97,372)$(24,668)
Add: Provision for (benefit from) income taxes4,468 (3,630)(1,984)8,098 (1,646)
Add: Equity-based compensation expense4,146 4,038 2,325 108 1,713 
Add: Acquisition and transaction expenses16,844 14,826 1,658 2,018 13,168 
Add: Losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations — 4,724 — (4,724)
Add: Changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments(1,125)(2,220)181 1,095 (2,401)
Add: Asset impairment charges — — — — 
Add: Incentive allocations — — — — 
Add: Depreciation & amortization expense70,749 54,016 31,114 16,733 22,902 
Add: Interest expense53,239 16,019 10,764 37,220 5,255 
Add: Pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities (1)
13,939 29,095 3,140 (15,156)25,955 
Add: Dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock23,657 — — 23,657 — 
Add: Interest costs on pension and OPEB liabilities1,232 445 — 787 445 
Less: Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities67,399 13,499 3,107 53,900 10,392 
Less: Non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA (2)
(16,279)(12,508)(9,637)(3,771)(2,871)
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)$61,028 $33,711 $(9,809)$27,317 $43,520 
__________________________________________________

(1) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020: (i) net loss of $(67,658), $(11,838) and $(3,503), (ii) interest expense of $28,702, $5,611 and $1,138, (iii) depreciation and amortization expense of $28,399, $12,443 and $5,513, (iv) acquisition and transaction expense of $616, $104 and $581, (v) changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments of $21,218, $19,850 and $(589), (vi) asset impairment of $2,280, $2,146 and $— and (vii) equity-based compensation of $382, $779 and $—, respectively.
(2) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020: (i) equity-based compensation of $470, $751 and $374, (ii) provision for income taxes of $670, $52 and $59, (iii) interest expense of $5,491, $3,370 and $2,025, (iv) depreciation and amortization expense of $9,699, $8,411 and $6,149, (v) changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments of $(53), $(76) and $38 (vi) loss on extinguishment of debt of $—, $— and $992, (vii) acquisition and transaction expenses of $1, $— and $—, and (vii) interest costs on pension and OPEB liabilities of $1, $—, and $—, respectively.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Revenues
Total revenues increased $141.7 million primarily due to higher revenues in the Railroad, Jefferson Terminal, and Corporate and Other segments.
Rail revenue increased $86.3 million due to the acquisition of Transtar in July 2021;
Terminal services revenue increased $14.5 million due to higher volumes at Jefferson Terminal;
Roadside services revenue increased $47.9 million due to the acquisition of a majority stake and consolidation of FYX in May 2022; and
Other revenue decreased $7.8 million primarily due to a loss on butane forward purchase contracts and margin compression at Repauno.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $127.8 million primarily due to increases in operating expenses and depreciation and amortization.
Operating expenses increased $109.6 million primarily due to:
an increase of $48.9 million in the Corporate and Other segment primarily due to the acquisition of a majority stake and consolidation of FYX in May 2022;
an increase of $49.0 million in the Railroad segment due to the acquisition of Transtar, which primarily consists of compensation and benefits and facility operating expenses;
an increase of $2.8 million at Repauno which primarily reflects increased activity;
40


an increase of $8.2 million at Jefferson Terminal which primarily reflects additional labor costs due to increased activity as well as higher insurance for the new Jefferson Terminal South property.
Depreciation and amortization increased $16.7 million which primarily reflects (i) additional assets placed into service at Jefferson Terminal and (ii) the acquisition of Transtar in July 2021.
Other (expense) income
Total other expense increased $87.0 million which primarily reflects:
an increase in equity in losses of unconsolidated entities of $53.9 million which primarily reflects unrealized losses on power swaps at Long Ridge;
an increase in interest expense of $37.2 million which reflects an increase in the average outstanding debt of approximately $198.0 million from the 2027 Notes issued in July 2022 as well as the new EB-5.3 Loan Agreement taken out at Jefferson Terminal;
a decrease in other expense of $5.8 million primarily due to (i) a write-off of an earn-out receivable in 2021 related to the sale of a portion of our Long Ridge investment and (ii) an increase in interest income within the Sustainability and Energy Transition segment in 2022.
Provision for income taxes
The provision for income taxes increased $8.1 million which primarily reflects provisions booked in the Railroad and Jefferson Terminal segments.
Dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock
Dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock increased $23.7 million due to the redeemable preferred stock raise completed in August 2022.
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $27.3 million primarily due to the changes noted above.

Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenues
Rail revenue increased $57.1 million due to the acquisition of Transtar in July 2021.
Crude marketing revenues decreased $8.2 million. In 2019, Jefferson Terminal directly sourced crude from producers in Canada, arranging logistics to its terminal and then marketing crude to third parties to take advantage of favorable spreads. The resulting crude sales and corresponding costs of sale, including logistical costs, are reflected in crude marketing revenues and operating expenses, respectively. Jefferson Terminal exited this crude marketing strategy in the fourth quarter of 2019 as a result of unfavorable oil spreads and as certain logistical commitments expired. All activities related to crude marketing revenues were terminated in 2019. All crude marketing revenues in 2020 include contracts executed in 2019 but delivered in 2020.
Other revenue increased $7.4 million primarily due to (i) an increase in butane sales of $5.2 million at Repauno, (ii) a gain of $2.2 million on butane forward purchase contracts at Repauno and (iii) an increase of $0.4 million due to the commencement of transloading at Repauno.
Terminal services revenue decreased $5.8 million at Jefferson Terminal which reflects lower volumes in the first half of 2021 due to lower global oil demand related to COVID-19.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $68.0 million primarily due to increases in (i) operating expenses, (ii) acquisition and transaction expenses, (iii) management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate and (iv) depreciation and amortization.
Operating expenses increased $29.2 million primarily due to:
an increase of $29.8 million in the Railroad segment due to the acquisition of Transtar, which primarily consists of compensation and benefits and facility operating expenses;
an increase of $5.3 million at Repauno which primarily reflects increases in (i) property taxes due to new assets, (ii) facility operating expenses due to higher butane volumes, (iii) compensation and benefits due to additional headcount and (iv) professional fees; and
a decrease of $4.8 million at Jefferson Terminal which primarily reflects (i) a decrease in cost of sales due to Jefferson Terminal exiting the crude marketing strategy in the fourth quarter of 2019, partially offset by (ii) higher insurance and other facility operating expenses.
41


Acquisition and transaction expenses increased $13.2 million primarily due to an increase in professional fees related to the acquisition of Transtar and other strategic initiatives.
Management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate increased $2.6 million which reflects an increase in the base management fee as our average total equity was higher in 2021, primarily due to the acquisition of Transtar.
Depreciation and amortization increased $22.9 million which primarily reflects (i) additional assets placed into service at Jefferson Terminal and Repauno and (ii) the acquisition of Transtar.
Other (expense) income
Total other expense increased $19.9 million which primarily reflects:
an increase in other expense of $9.0 million primarily due to (i) losses related to crude oil forward transactions at Jefferson Terminal and (ii) a write-off of an earn-out receivable related to the sale of a portion of our Long Ridge investment;
an increase in equity in losses of unconsolidated entities of $10.4 million which primarily reflects unrealized losses on power swaps at Long Ridge;
an increase in interest expense of $5.3 million due to the issuance of the Series 2021 Bonds for $425 million and the commencement of the EB-5 Loan Agreement; and
a decrease in loss on extinguishment of debt of $4.7 million due to a debt refinancing at Jefferson Terminal in 2020.
Benefit from income taxes
The benefit from income taxes increased $1.6 million which primarily reflects higher pre-tax losses in the Power and Gas segment and Corporate and other, partially offset by a provision in the Railroad segment.
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $43.5 million primarily due to (i) the changes noted above and (ii) an increase in the Pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities.

42


Railroad Segment
The following table presents our results of operations:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202220212020 '22 vs ‘21 '21 vs '20
Revenues
Lease income$1,943 $736 $— $1,207 $736 
Rail revenues147,718 61,514 4,424 86,204 57,090 
Total revenues149,661 62,250 4,424 87,411 57,826 
Expenses
Operating expenses84,863 35,824 5,992 49,039 29,832 
Acquisition and transaction expenses763 2,841 — (2,078)2,841 
Depreciation and amortization20,164 8,951 583 11,213 8,368 
Total expenses105,790 47,616 6,575 58,174 41,041 
Other expense
Loss on sale of assets, net(1,603)— — (1,603)— 
Interest expense(212)(60)(3)(152)(57)
Other expense(1,632)(422)— (1,210)(422)
Total other expense(3,447)(482)(3)(2,965)(479)
Income (loss) before income taxes40,424 14,152 (2,154)26,272 16,306 
Provision for income taxes1,287 64 — 1,223 64 
Net income (loss)39,137 14,088 (2,154)25,049 16,242 
Less: Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest in consolidated subsidiaries15 — — 15 — 
Net income (loss) attributable to stockholders and Former Parent$39,122 $14,088 $(2,154)$25,034 $16,242 

43



The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net income (loss) attributable to stockholders and Former Parent to Adjusted EBITDA:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202220212020 '22 vs ‘21 '21 vs '20
Net income (loss) attributable to stockholders and Former Parent$39,122 $14,088 $(2,154)$25,034 $16,242 
Add: Provision for income taxes1,287 64 — 1,223 64 
Add: Equity-based compensation expense1,531 — — 1,531 — 
Add: Acquisition and transaction expenses763 2,841 — (2,078)2,841 
Add: Losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations — — — — 
Add: Changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments — — — — 
Add: Asset impairment charges — — — — 
Add: Incentive allocations — — — — 
Add: Depreciation & amortization expense20,164 8,951 583 11,213 8,368 
Add: Interest expense212 60 152 57 
Add: Pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities — — — — 
Add: Dividends and accretion of redeemable preferred stock — — — — 
Add: Interest costs on pension and OPEB liabilities1,232 445 — 787 445 
Less: Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities — — — — 
Less: Non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA (1)
(25)— — (25)— 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)$64,286 $26,449 $(1,568)$37,837 $28,017 
__________________________________________________

(1) Includes the following items for the year ended December 31, 2022: (i) equity-based compensation of $2, (ii) provision for income taxes of $2, (iii) acquisition and transaction expenses of $1, (iv) interest costs on pension and OPEB liabilities of $1, and (v) depreciation and amortization expense of $19.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Revenues
Total revenues increased $87.4 million which is primarily due to the acquisition of Transtar on July 28, 2021.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $58.2 million which is primarily due to the acquisition of Transtar on July 28, 2021.
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $37.8 million due to the changes noted above.

Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenues
Total revenues increased $57.8 million which is primarily due to the acquisition of Transtar on July 28, 2021.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $41.0 million which is primarily due to the acquisition of Transtar on July 28, 2021.

Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $28.0 million due to the changes noted above.

44


Jefferson Terminal Segment
The following table presents our results of operations:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202220212020 '22 vs ‘21 '21 vs '20
Revenues
Lease income$1,278 $1,688 $1,186 $(410)$502 
Terminal services revenues59,011 44,664 50,887 14,347 (6,223)
Crude marketing revenues — 8,210 — (8,210)
Total revenues60,289 46,352 60,283 13,937 (13,931)
Expenses
Operating expenses56,417 48,255 53,072 8,162 (4,817)
Acquisition and transaction expenses64 — — 64 — 
Depreciation and amortization39,318 36,013 29,034 3,305 6,979 
Total expenses95,799 84,268 82,106 11,531 2,162 
Other (expense) income
Loss on sale of assets, net — (8)— 
Loss on extinguishment of debt — (4,724)— 4,724 
Interest expense(24,798)(14,812)(9,42